the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools

The aim of the study is to identify various influences which the use of instructional materials has on the teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary School by observing the influence on selected students in the school




        The study examines the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary.

        The study was carried out in junior secondary schools in Kwara State with 150 students made up the sampling population randomly selected using stratified random sampling technique, three research questions to collect relevant data for the study which was analyzed using frequency count and percentage statistical tool.

        The findings revealed that the use of instructional materials influence teaching and learning processes, it make learning more concrete and facilitate effective understanding of the difficulty aspect of the subject (Business Education).

        However, the recommendation put forward is that, teachers should be well-trained on the use of instructional materials in their teaching and that adequate fund should be provided for the school to secure necessary and appropriate instructional materials relevant to different instructions.


TITLE PAGES                                                           I

CERTIFICATION                                                       II

DEDICATION                                                           III

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                            IV

ABSTRACT                                                               VI

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                             VII

LIST OF TABLES                                                      X


1.1   Background to the Study

1.2   Statement of the Problem

1.3   Purpose of the Study

1.4   General Questions

1.5   Research Questions

1.6   Significance of the Study

1.7   Delimitation of the Study

1.8   Definition of Major Terms


2.1   The Concept of Instructional Materials

2.2   Classification and Criteria for Instructional Material Utilization in Classroom Interaction

2.3   Factors Influencing business education Instruction in junior secondary School Schools

2.4   Influence of Instructional Materials and Quality of Instruction in business studies

2.5   Instructional Materials and Students Academic Achievement

2.6   Summary of Literature Reviewed


3.1   Research Design

3.2   Population

3.3   Sample and Sampling Technique

3.4   Research Instrument

3.5   Validity of the Instrument

3.6   Reliability of the Instrument

3.7   Administration of the Instrument

3.8   Procedure for Data Analysis


4.1   Results

4.2   Discussion


5.1   Summary

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Implication of the Study

5.4   Recommendations

5.5   Limitation of the Study

5.6   Suggestions for Further Studies




Table 4.1: Percentage of Male and Female Respondents

Table 4.2: Respondent Age Range

Table 4.3: Uses of the available instructional material in teaching by the teachers in junior secondary School.

Table 4.3: Showing Relevance of Instructional Materials

in junior secondary School Students Academic





1.1Background to the Study

In recent years science has become a highly esteemed and important set of subjects in the country, moreso, that newly in the history of human kind has a society been so dependent upon business knowledge as ours. This made business educators to be greatly concerned with students opinion and their attitude to the teaching of business subjects in our schools.

Business education is one of the occupational areas that are richly provided by vocational and technical education in Nigeria. Business education refers to a programme of instruction that offers various skills in accounting, marketing and Office Technology and Management (OTM). Major topics include: office practice, book keeping, business mathematics, business communication, secretarial duties, word processing, advertising (Ajisafe, Bolarinwa & Edeh 2015).

Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) had stipulated that the actual goals of business education shall be to:

  1. Prepare students for specific career in office occupations;


  1. Equip students with the requisite skills for job creation and entrepreneurship; and
  2. Expose students with knowledge about business, including a good blend of computer technology, which incorporates Information and Communication Technology (ICT).

They further explained that the first two goals involve education ‘for’ business, which is aimed at equipping recipients with the requisite attributes (knowledge, skills, competencies, and attitudes) to become gainfully employed in the world of work, whereas the later addresses education ‘about’ business, which is aimed at providing a sound basis for further studies at the graduate and post-graduate levels.

Because of its numerous benefits, business education is a very popular choice among business subject nationwide. Presently business education is offered by Junior Secondary School as one of the compulsory subjects.

Instructional materials are relevant for the teaching of business education and they are very exclusive as it help to facilitate effective understanding of the rudimentary aspect of the subject.

Salami (2005) defined instructional materials as collection of materials and equipment that can be used to facilitate the process of communication otherwise called interaction in the classroom teaching. Such materials are organized and used to effect a control of message, to motivate, catch and hold attention, stimulate the function of the human sense thus aiding understanding and interpretation and or recreation of meaning.

In view of this acts any improvement in the teaching and learning process of business education were seen as a step to sound educational function at all levels of our educational system. In this perspective, the factor responsible for mass failure in business education are lack of trained teacher, insufficient facilities, unavailability of up-to-date textbooks, unseriousness on the part of the students and above all lack of motivation on the part of the lectures who handle the course. In addition to these, lack of basic instructional packages and indifferent attitude of the students could facilitate students poor performance business education in junior secondary school.

The concern of the study is to investigate into the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools

1.2  Statement of the Problem

It is often identified that instructional materials are essential tools which facilitate effective understanding in the classroom interaction, it equipped and built on the teacher competence. In order to itemize correctly the challenges that junior secondary Students faces in the teaching and learning situation. It will be necessary to study their mindset. The study of this will give impetus to the knowledge of how they react to certain conditions, it is widely accepted that when teacher utilizes.

Instructional materials of all sorts ranging from the visual aids e.g. T.V, Computer to teach, Audio-visual and Multisensory devices.

This research is served towards assessing the use of instructional materials in teaching of business education and how it has affected students performance in secondary schools in Ilorin.

1.3  Purpose of the Study

The aim of the study is to identify various influences which the use of instructional materials has on the teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary School by observing the influence on selected students in the school.

The specific objectives of the study includes:

  • Identify some instructional material uses in schools.
  • Assessing the efficiency of the use of such instructional materials in the junior secondary School.
  • Appraise students response to the use of this educational resource materials.
  • Determine if it enhances teaching and learning.
  • Compare and contrast student performance via the use or lack of use of instructional materials.

1.4  General Questions

The following questions are raised for the purpose of this research work.

  • What are instructional materials?
  • What factors determines teachers competence on the uses of instructional materials?
  • How does instructional materials influence the teaching of business studies?

1.5 Research Questions

The study raises some vital research questions which guide investigation on some ideals and assist in coming to clear conclusions.

The research questions are itemized as follows:

  • Do teachers in schools (Junior secondary School) use instructional materials while teaching the students?
  • How many students passes business education regularly with or without instructional materials usage.
  • Is there any link between instructional materials usage and Junior secondary School students academic achievement?

The three research questions will lead to the formation of the following hypotheses which then be tested during the course of this study. They are:

  1. Instructional materials has a pertinent influence on student performance in business education in Junior secondary School.
  2. Instructional materials has no relevant influence on student performance in business education in Junior secondary School.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study intends to investigate the influence(s) of instructional material on teaching and learning of business and Junior secondary School Students academic performance in Ilorin. The study amongst other thing will assess the impact of the use of instructional materials. It will also provide detailed information on the subject matter for effective and meaningful teaching.

It goes a long way to encourage teachers to put in more effort at ensuring that they develop or adapt such materials in their teaching so as to provide effective understanding.

The study also enables the teacher to identify the appropriate instructional materials available for business instruction, their usage and how effective such materials in classroom interaction.

However, some of the problems associated with uses of instructional materials in classroom interaction will be identified and provide necessary background information on each identified instructional materials so as to proffer appropriate solution.

This research study would be impetus for further educational research on instructional material usage in higher institution of learning.

1.7 Delimitation of the Study

The study is limited to junior secondary School on Ilorin, Kwara State, because the topic of this project focuses on use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools. Thus the study covers Kwara State Junior secondary School Ilorin as a case study, this is due to time and financial constraints on the part of the researcher.

1.8 Definition of Major Terms

The following terms as reflected in the study are given relevant meaning as follows:

  • Instructional Materials: These are collection of materials and equipment that can be used to facilitate the process of classroom instruction.
  • Academic Performance: Is the attitude or the outcome of the students behaviour towards their education.
  • Investigation: Is refer to as a way of examine all the facts connected with an event, situation or allegation in order to discover the truth in business education teaching.
  • Teacher: This is a body responsible for impacting knowledge to the learner in the school.

Students: These are learners in Junior secondary School who offered business education as a Subject.




This research work was carried out to investigate the influence of instructional materials in teaching of business education and academic performance of junior secondary school students in Ilorin Kwara State.

The research designed adopted was descriptive survey questionnaire was used to collect data from the sampled students in the school while frequency count and percentage was the tool used to analyze the data collected from administered questionnaire. A total of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents were sampled for the study.

The result revealed that instructional materials if appropriately used could facilitate effective understanding and this will improve their academic achievement.

The use of an appropriate instructional aid in teaching and learning as ascertained by Salami (2006) improve the teacher teaching methodology through which effective classroom interaction is facilitated.

Also, it was revealed from the study that student academic performance was drastically improved when an appropriate instructional materials was used, thus the study conclude that instructional material is an important key factor in instruction.


The essence of instructional materials usage in classroom interaction is to facilitate effective understanding between the learners and the facilitators (teachers) there is the need for the school managers to provide an appropriate instructional materials for the right instruction so that the goal of education could better achieved and provide productive classroom organization.

The importance of using instructional materials as teaching aids in schools cannot be overemphasized. Students need simplified means of instructing them which is readily provided through instructional materials when used as teaching aid improves student performance in biology. Hence, effort must be geared towards ensuring that students were taught using appropriate instructional materials. In conclusion teaching students in the study area without the use of instructional materials as teaching aids will be a form of discrimination as their presence make teaching more meaningful.

Implication of the Study

This research study shows the relevant of instructional materials in teaching and learning processes. It is a well-known fact that classroom interaction is promoted through the use of appropriate instructional aids thus the schools and concerned authorities should make necessary provision in line with the recommendation of this research study.


For effective instructional delivery package, adequate instructional materials should be made available for schools. Also there is need for effective supervision and appraisal of available ones for ease of maintenance and accessibility.

In support of this assertion Salami (2006) suggested that necessary improvisation should be practice to enhance availability. However the following recommendations are provided:

  • Grants and allowances should be included as part of the teachers salaries which must cater for the purchase of some of this materials to facilitate effective teaching packages.
  • The National Union of Teachers (NUT), curriculum implementation bodies and some concerned stakeholders should organize a seminar and workshop which must be made compulsory for all teachers in the study area on the methodology involves in using of appropriate instructional materials in teaching learning processes.
  • I will also enjoin teachers in the school to put to use the available instructional materials in their teaching, most especially in business education instruction to make learning concrete in the mind of the learners through which their academic performance will be better enhanced.

Limitation of the Study

The study is set out to investigate the relevance of instructional materials in teaching of business education and academic achievement among junior secondary school students. The study is restricted to students of Kwara State junior secondary school of Ilorin, this is due to the limited time available for the researcher to go around and get reliable data for the study. However it is hope that future research will facilitate additional information that could enhance good result

Suggestions for Further Studies

It is confirmed that the use of instructional materials enhances improved teaching and learning in business education instruction. However, the following suggestions were made for future research study.

  • For the fact that the study is restricted to school nursing Ilorin, it is hoped that future research work should carry out in other schools within the state to established the fact on the relevance of instructional materials in business education instruction
  • Other subject taught in the junior secondary school should also be considered for future research work and see how applicable are instructional materials in the teaching of such subject and the academic achievement of the students.

The same topic should be conducted in other State of the country and give a correlation analysis of the results obtained.


There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *