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The Energy Savings And Environmental Benefits Of Wastewater Treatment And Reuse

Fresh water quality and supply, particularly for domestic and industrial purposes, are deteriorating with contamination threats on water resources.

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Description

ABSTRACT

Fresh water quality and supply, particularly for domestic and industrial purposes, are deteriorating with contamination threats on water resources. Multiple technologies in the conventional wastewater treatment (WWT) settings have been adopted to purify water to a desirable quality. However, high energy consumption affects the wastewater industry and it is second in cost only to manpower for most wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The need to meet the new effluent limits and water quality standards, has led to implementation of new technologies, which has also led to considerable increased energy consumption in WWTPs. At the same time, energy price is on the rise and as oil prices continue to fluctuate, thereby increasing their operating costs. Those increases will be compounded by the need to meet additional stringent regulations that will require energy-intensive treatment processes to achieve the required effluent quality. Energy production, usage and saving in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) have been discussed while one WWTP have been examined in order to: (i) identify energy/resource recovery strategies, (ii) explore the potential applications in the plant, (iii) to promote the commercial, and large-scale application at WWTPs.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE

TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWELDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
  • BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
  • PROBLEM STATEMENT
  • AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
  • LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
  • SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
  • METHODOLOGY
  • PROJECT ORGANISATION

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • INTRODUCTION
  • OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
  • ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT
  • WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

  • INDUSTRIAL POLLUTANTS
  • SUSTAINABLETREATMENTANDREUSEOFWASTEWATER

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0      RESULT

  • APPROPRIATE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY
  • DISCUSSION
  • STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEW TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER FIVE

  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1                                           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Wastewater, which is the biggest waste stream from municipalities, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals, food, textile, agricultural, polymer and paper industries and so on contain high contaminants of oil and salts of organic and inorganic compounds. This strikes as a major ecological problem with high environmental impacts when discharged into the ecosystem without proper treatment. Furthermore, the industrial revolution associated with demographic growth have increased the demand for freshwater supply, which is depleting the natural fresh water supply sources, although wastewater can be treated through various physical, chemical and biological strategies [Stillwell, 2009]. Unfortunately, the current conventional wastewater treatment methods cannot eliminate the contaminants. In addition conventional wastewater treatment can be expensive. Therefore, the quest for clean water and clean environment has resulted in various environmental protection agencies setting stringent discharge limits [Stoica, 2007]. Conversely, there are always variations in wastewater qualities which have different impacts on the environment [Ekama, 2017], where a proper wastewater treatment incorporated with primary, secondary and advanced treatment strategies seems to more viable [Ekama, 2017]. The primary treatment involves separating the solids from the liquids via filtration or sedimentation, whereas the secondary treatment removes the dissolved solids and other contaminants through chemical precipitation and biological process [Stillwell, 2009]. Then UV light or membranes are used for further treatment. After which, the treated water can be profitable to farmers as well as the environment positively in sustainable manner viz. irrigation, and agricultural purposes. In this study, evaluating the streamline flow of innovative wastewater treatment technologies for reuse and subsequent sludge generation as an energy source is being addressed which is the main aim of this study.

1.2                                                  PROBLEM STATEMENT

With water shortages plaguing the world, water scarcity has become one of the largest threats facing society today, making it one of the main millennium development goals. Therefore governments have begun to develop new projects and technologies to mitigate its effects on the world. Such projects and technologies include rainwater harvesting, water location transfers, desalination, and wastewater treatment.

Unlike the rest, water treatment presents a sustainable short-term and long-term solution to water scarcity. Wastewater is the water used by residences and commercial/industrial establishments that has become too polluted for further use. The combination between these different types of wastewater causes the resulting wastewater mix to contain both suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic substances such as carbohydrates, fats, soaps, synthetic detergents, as well as various natural and synthetic organic chemicals.

The wastewater treatment process must be divided into different treatment stages to ensure good water and sanitation quality. The preliminary stage of the treatment process uses large filtering screens that remove large solid inorganic material such as paper, plastic, and metal. This is followed by the removal of the grit and silt which are abrasive to plant equipment.

The clarified wastewater is then passed into a tank where the third stage of treatment, known as the Tertiary treatment stage, takes place. In this stage chlorine is used to remove any biological pathogens present in the clarified wastewater that could be a risk to human health.

In some instances this treatment is repeated more than once if the treated wastewater is reused for purposes such as energy generation. The statement of the problem becomes the following:

  1. How to achieve environmental control waste water treatment.
  2. How to wastewater can the treated and reuse for energy generation.
  3. How to wastewater can be useful to the environment.

1.3                                     AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

AIM

To determine the amount of energy saved or recovered from 1kg of wastewater treatment and reuse

The project also intend to the environmental benefits of wastewater treatment and reuse.

OBJECTIVES

  • To review wastewater treatment techniques and processes
  • To determine the energy savings from waste water treatment and reuse
  • To specifically quantify the amount of energy that can be recovered from treatment and reuse of 1kg wastewater.
  • To determine the environmental benefits associated with wastewater treatment and reuse.

1.4                                           SIGINIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of this study is to build the capacity of relevant stakeholders regarding the ecologically safe management of domestic and industrial wastewater. This study will also throw light on Energy production, usage and saving in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This study will expose us to how various pollutants can be removed from wastewater and how energy can be recovered if the WWTPs are well managed with proper energy

1.5                                             LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

There are some limitations that affect the study during research. These limitations include time, literature review, finance, and information collection transportation.

  1. I) Time: Several times has been wasted in terms of materials. The time wasted is due to unavailability of material to enhance the project sometimes the equipment and materials are not available.

2) Literature review: It was very hard for me to gather all the information need in Chapter two due to lack of literature review.

3) Finance: The money for the implementation of the project are often inadequate. These have been cases of unwholesome bureaucracy before the money are released this delaying the project.

4) Information collection: The problem of getting information from the internet leads to various aspect of the computer. Sometimes the in availability of services in the computer system does not allow us to get enough information concerning the study.

1.6                                                   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This work describes how water and wastewater facilities can lead by example and achieve multiple benefits by improving the energy efficiency of their new, existing, and renovated buildings and their day- to-day operations. This study focused on three major sections: wastewater water treatment methods, environmental benefit of the waste water and the reuse of waste water in energy generation.

1.7                                                         PROJECT ORGANISATION

The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work,   chapter two presents the literature review of the study,  chapter three describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.

 

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