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The Effects Of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash As Suplementary Cementitious Material In Production Of Concrete 1

The aim of this research work is to investigate the suitability and effectiveness of bagasse ash as a partial replacement of cement in concrete.

Original price was: ₦ 3,000.00.Current price is: ₦ 2,999.00.

Description

ABSTRACT

Sugarcane Bagasse is the fibrous residue leftover when sugarcane is squeezed for its juice. Bagasse ash is obtained by subjecting Bagasse to calcinations using furnace. This work is aimed tat using Bagasse Ash as a replacement in the production of concrete.

The bagassewas collected from dumped in a marketin Kano and thereafter sun-drie to eliminate any trace of moisture. It was then taken to the blast furnace for calcinations(controlled burning) at a temperature of 1250OC for 25minutes.The ash was then weighed and sieved with a 90μm standard sieve and the quantity retained on the sieve (black carbon) was weighed and discarded. The ash collected was investigated and its chemical compositions were obtained. Normal Consistency and Setting time for Cement and bagasse ash were determined. The concrete was batched using mix ratio 1:2:4 and the cement was replaced in varying percentages of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% using Bagasse ash.Thereafter, the concrete was cured for 7, 14, 21, and 28days and its properties both in fresh and harden state were determined.

The result for Normal consistency of cement was achieved at 35% of water cement ratio (140ml of water added) which is equal to 34mm penetration.While Normal consistency for Bagasse ash was achieved at 33% of water Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA )ratio (132mls of water added) which is equal to 35mm penetration. Hence, the cement and bagasse ash are satisfactory for normal consistency of 34 to 35% range of specification.The Slump of the concrete shows a slight reduction as the bagasse ash content increases. Also, the results of the compressive strength of  concrete at 20% replacement has highest compressive strength of 19.94N/mm2 at  28 days.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Titled page

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                           iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                 iv

Abstract                                                                                              v

Table of content                                                                                  vi

List of Table                                                                                        vii

List of Figure                                                                                       viii

CHAPTER ONE: PREAMBLE

  • Preamble 1
  • Statement of problem 2
  • Aims and Objective 4
  • Justification 4
  • Scope of the study 5

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Concrete                                                                                   6

2.2     Properties of Concrete                                                                7

2.2.1 Fresh properties                                                                         7

2.2.2 Hardened properties                                                                               7

2.3 Components of Concrete                                                                 7

2.3.1 Ordinary Portland Cement                                                            7

2.3.2 Aggregates

2.3.3  Water                                                                                        8

2.3.4  Admixtures                                                                                8

2.4     Cement                                                                                     8

2.4.1 Types of cement                                                                          9

2.4.1.1 Portland cement                                                                       9

2.4.1.2 Portland pozzolana cement                                                        11

2.4.2 Physical Properties of cement                                                        12

2.4.2.1 Fineness                                                                                  13

2.4.2.2 Consistency of cement paste                                                      13

2.4.2.3 Setting time                                                                                       14

2.5     Pozzolans                                                                                  14

2.6     Cementitious Material                                                                 15

2.6.1  Fly ash                                                                                      16

2.6.2  Lime stone                                                                                 18

2.6.3  Condensed Silica Fume                                                                18

2.7     Bagasse                                                                                     19

2.8     Previous Work Done                                                                             20

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1     Material Sourcing                                                                        25

3.1.1  Bagasse Ash                                                                               25

3.1.2  Cement                                                                                     25

3.1.3  Aggregate                                                                                 25

3.1.3.1 Fine Aggregates                                                                        26

3.1.3.2 Coarse aggregate                                                                      26

3.2  Research Procedure                                                                       26

3.2.1 Production of Bagasse Ash                                                            27

3.2.2 Characterization of Bagasse Ash                                                    28

3.2.3 Test on Bagasse ash and cement                                                   28

3.2.3.1 Finesses Test                                                                            28

3.2.3.2 Normal Consistency Test                                                           29

3.2.3.3 Setting time test (Initial and Final)                                             30

3.2.4  Test on aggregate                                                                      31

3.2.4.1 Sieve Analysis                                                                           31

3.2.4.2 Specific gravity and absorption capacity                                      32

3.2.4.3 Moisture content                                                                       33

3.2.5  Preparation of Concrete Specimens and Mixing Procedure               34

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1     Characterization of Bagasse ash and cement                                  35

4.1.1  Physical properties of cement and Bagasse ash Result                     38

4.1.2  Chemical composition of sugarcane Bagasse Ash                            38

4.2     Result on Sieve Analysis                                                              40

4.2.1  Grain size distribution for Bagasse Ash and OPC Cement                 40

4.2.2  Results for Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate                                  41

4.2.3 Result for Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregate                                 42

4.3     Workability Test (Slump Test)                                                      44

4.4     Average compressive strength Result                                            45

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                

5.1     Conclusion                                                                                 47

5.2     Recommendation                                                                        47

Reference

LIST OF TABLE

Table 2.1 Typical  composition of ordinary Portland cement                          10

Table 2.2  Chemical Requirement for pozzolan                                         16

Table 3.2 Mix proportion for the concrete work                                           35

Table 4.1 Physical properties of cement and Bagasse ash                          38

Table 4.2      Chemical composition of cement and SBA                                39

Table 4.3 Grain Size distribution for bagasse ash and OPC Cement                40

Table 4.4 Sieve analysis results for fine aggregate                                   41

Table 4.5 Sieve analysis results for coarse aggregate                                     43

Table 4.6Concrete   Slump Test                                                   40

Table 4.6Average Compressive Strength                                                       42

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 3.1 Diagram of sugarcane Bagasse ash                                     26

Figure 4.1  Graph for gradation of Bagasse ash and cement                      37

Figure 4.2  Graph for sieve analysis of fine aggregate                               39

Figure  4.3    Graph for sieve analysis of coarse aggregate                        41

Figure  4.4Concrete Slump Test                                                             42

Figure 4.4.1 Average Compressive Strength                                            43

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Preamble

          Concrete is the most commonly used construction material in the world. It is basically composed of two components: paste and aggregates. The paste which acts as binder contains cement, water and occasionally admixtures; the aggregate contains sand and gravel or crushed stone(Naik andMoriconi, 2003). The aggregate are relatively inert filler materials which occupy 70% to 80% of concrete and can therefore be expected to have influence on its properties( Mindess and Young, 2003).he infrastructural needs of developing countries have lead to huge increase in demand for Portland cement. According to BAU scenario, cement consumption will grow at high rate on world level in the year  2000-2030 ,the 1600 Metric tones of cement consumption in 2000 will increase almost two folds to 2880 Metric tons by 2030, implying an annual 2% grow rate (Nurdeen and Shahid, 2010).

Cement is one of the constituents of concrete and of very high technical benefits, but expensive and environmentally unfriendly material. (Naik  and Moriconi, 2006). Therefore, requirements for economical and more environmental friendly cementing material have extended interest in other cementing materials that can be used as supplement  for Ordinary Portland cement. Ground granulated furnace slag, fly ash etc have been used successfully for this purpose, Ordinary Portland Cement is frequently used as a major construction material in the country and the world at large. It is considered as a durable material of construction. However, the environmental issue is on the increasing side, as Portland cement is responsible for about 5%-8% global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions due to it high demand(Jayminkumar and Raijiwala,2015). Researchers all over the worlds are searching out on ways of utilizing either industrial or agricultural waste as a source of raw material for industries. This waste utilization will not only aid the economy but will also bring about foreign exchange earnings and environmental pollution control.

Sugarcane is an agricultural product from which Bagasse Ash is obtained after squeezing out the sugary water in the sugarcane and subjecting it to heat by incinerating the residue through control burning to form ash. (Patcharin et al.,2009). Bagasse is the fibrous residue leftover when sugarcane is squeezed for its juice (Osinubi and Stephen,2005). The Sugarcane Bagasse creates environmental nuisance due to poor disposal which in turn forms garbage heaps (Oyejobi and Lawal, 2014). According to(Barroso and Bareras, 2000) one ton of sugarcane can generate 280kg of  Bagasse waste. In the Northern part of  Nigeria there is high production of sugarcane due to the soil and weather condition which favorably supports the farming of sugarcane and consequently there is abundant generation of Sugarcane Bagasse/residue waste which cause economic as well as environmental related issue. To solving these issues, enormous effort  have been  towards the Bagasse ash waste management. But there are yet no adequate research about the usefulness of sugarcane residue in the country, very little value is being attached to Bagasse. The residue has been found to be used for primary fuel source and also, for paper production. However, incinerating it to ash and adopting it as a good pozzolan adds to its economic value.The advancement in technology and desire for safer environment has stimulated the sense of economic reuse and proper management of material earlier discarded as waste. According to( Oriola and Moses, 2010), industrial activities often lead to depletion of natural resources, a process that may result in the accumulation of by-product and/or waste material. It is need of time to rise to the use of cement replacement materials in the concrete which can reduce the significant amount of cement consumption due to the hazardous effect of CO2 to the environment. The incinerating of organic waste of sugarcane i.e. Bagasse Ash contains pozzolanic material, Therefore, it is highly recommended to conduct research on Bagasse and their impact on concrete behavior, and also be adopted has a suitable replacement of cement in concrete

1.2     Statement of Problem

The production of cement is one of the most environmental unfriendly processes due to the emission of carbondioxide gas (CO2) to the  atmosphere. Portland cement is responsible for about 5%-8% global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions constituting environmental problem or impact which may likely be on the increased due to exponential demand of Portland cement(Jayminkumar and Raijiwala,2015).

In addition to its negative environmental impact, cement is also one of the most expensive materials when compared to the other constituents of concrete. The problem of high cost of cement is also a major concern of the construction industry(Anum and Williams, 2003).

The Sugarcane Bagasse creates environmental nuisance due to poor disposal which in turn form garbage heaps, if left to rot, will breakdown and release greenhouse gases, particularly methane, which is 27 times more dangerous to the Ozone than carbon-dioxide.(Australia Clean Energy Council)

1.3     Aim and Objectives

The aim of this research work is to investigate the suitability and effectiveness of bagasse ash as a partial replacement of cement in concrete.

The objectives of this research work includes:

  1. Characterization of Bagasse Ash and to see if it exhibits pozzolanic property
  2. Determinationof influence of varyingbagasse ash on properties of concrete both in fresh and hardened states

1.4     Justification of the Study

The advancement in technology and desire for safer environment has stimulated the sense of economic reuse and proper management of material earlier discarded as waste. But there are yet no adequate research about the usefulness of sugarcane residue in the country, very little value is being attached to Bagasse. The residue has been found to be used for primary fuel source and also for paper production. However, incinerating it to ash and adopting it as a good pozolan adds to its economic value. This waste utilization will not only aid the economy but will also bring about foreign exchange earnings and environmental pollution control.

1.5     Scope of study

The research focuses on the determination of the suitability of Bagasse ash as a replacement for cement in concrete and construction works. The optimum percentage of bagasse ash required to provide the desired strength when cement was replaced by 0%, 5%, 10%,15%,and 20% sugarcane bagasse ash. Thereafter, the following testscompressive strength, Sieve analysis, density, consistency and setting time were carried out in order to evaluating the influence of  bagasse ash on concrete.

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