Proximate Composition Qualitative And Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis Of Delonlx Regia Leaves

Delonix regia is a traditionally medicine that has been used in various ailments such as chronic fever, antimicrobial, constipation, inflammation, arthritis, hemoplagia, piles, boils, pyorrhea, scorpion bite, bronchitis, asthma and dysmenorrhoea.

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  • Delonix regia is a traditionally medicine that has been used in various ailments such as chronic fever, antimicrobial, constipation, inflammation, arthritis, hemoplagia, piles, boils, pyorrhea, scorpion bite, bronchitis, asthma and dysmenorrhoea. However, there is little experimental evidence for its traditional use. In this review an attempt has been made to gather and compile the scattered traditional information along with the experimental evidence on the beneficial properties of Delonix regia. The plant shows diverse therapeutic prospective such as antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiemetic, larvicidal, hepatoprotective, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, anthelmintic, antiarthritic, wound healing and anticarcinogenic potential. It possess copious phytochemicals, viz. saponins, alkaloids, carotene, hydrocarbons, phytotoxins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, carotenoids, galactomannon, lupeol, β-sitosterol, terpenoids, glycosides and carbohydrates, in leaves, flowers, bark and roots. Though Delonix regia  Raf. has been widely used in traditional medicines in various ailments, yet studies need to be conducted to explore the potential phyto-constituents of this plant for the prevention of various other diseases and to further unravel, characterize, patent and commercialize the protective components from different parts of this plant for the benefit of humans.
  • 1.0                                                        INTRODUCTION
  • 1.1                                           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
  • Medicinal plants are rich source of novel drugs that forms the ingredients in traditional system of medicine, modern medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and lead compounds in synthetic drugs [1]. The reason for using them as medicine lies in the fact that they contain chemical components of therapeutic value [2]. These compounds are naturally occurring in the medicinal plants, leaves, vegetables and roots that have defense mechanism and protect from various diseases. The medicinal value of plants lies in some chemical substances (usually secondary metabolites) that produce a definite physiological action as the human body. In recent times focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems [3] including treatment against hepatocellular carcinoma [4].
  • Nature has been a source of wide diversity of medicinal plants and mankind has used many species for centuries since time immemorial for their benefit. The medicinal property of the plants has been exploited for the cure of several ailments [4]. There has been an increasing interest worldwide on therapeutic values of natural products from plants due to  disenchantment with modern synthetic drug [1]. Herbal medicine has proved efficacious and potent in the treatment of many chronic diseases that orthodox medicine cannot cure. Plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. Antibiotics were discovered to provide the source for the therapy of microbial infections. Excessive use of antibiotics has become the major factor for the emergence and dissemination of multidrug resistant strains [16]. Numerous aromatic spicy and medicinal plants have been examined for their antioxidant potential [3]. Many plant components are now synthesized and analyzed in large laboratories, for example vincristine (antitumor drug) and ephedrine (bronchodilator) used to decrease respiratory congestion were well originally discovered through research on medicinal plants [9]. In general people with low income such as farmers, people of small isolated villages and native communities use folk medicine for the treatment of common infections [8]. Infectious diseases caused by these multidrug resistant strains remain the leading cause of death. Thus people are turning their attention to alternative novel antimicrobial agents to combat such pathogens [5, 10].
  • Phytochemicals are biologically active compounds derived from plant physiological processes and are, responsible for conferring colour, flavor, smell, texture and several biological properties including antimicrobial property to the plants [11]. India is rich in all the three levels of bio diversities including species diversity, genetic diversity and habitat diversity. Therefore, after search through wide literature for medicinal plants bearing antimicrobial properties the plants Delonix regia, Cassia alata, and Murraya koenigii plants were selected to further screen their phytochemical properties. The aim to analyze the phytochemical properties of the concerned plant (Delonix regia) was to validate their use in folk medicine. At the end of this work, the proximate composition, quantitative and qualitative phytochemical constituents of Delonix regia leaves shall be analyzed and discussed.
  • 1.2                                              STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
  • Traditional medicine is widely used almost everywhere in the world most especially in Africa which Nigeria is one of the countries in Africa that values and use traditional medicine. However, despite the popularity of traditional medicine in Nigeria, there are still high number of people that doesn’t belief in the efficacy of traditional medicine. This work was made to gather and compile the scattered traditional information along with the experimental evidence on the beneficial properties of Delonix regia  which can make and convince people using traditional medicine.
  • 1.3                                                   RESEARCH QUESTION
  1. To what extent is Delonix regia useful?
  2. What are the sicknesses that Delonix regia cures?
  • Is there any side effect of using Delonix regia in treating sicknesses?
  • 1.4                                                SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
  • As a student of this department, this study has exposed me to the uses, application, and chemical ingredient of Delonix regia. This study has also help me to investigate the proximate composition, quantitative and qualitative phytochemical constituents of Delonix regia.
  • 1.5                                                SCOPE AND LIMITATION
  • Medicinal plants have bioactive compounds which are used for curing of various human diseases and also play an important role in healing. Secondary constituents contain Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Phenol, Saponine, Steroids and Tannins. Medicinal plants have anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antidiuretic and anti-inflammation activities. There are different types of medicinal plants which cures different types of diseases but in this study we are only focusing on Delonix regia which is locally available in all region of Nigeria. The leaves of the selected medicinal plants were washed, air dried and then powdered. The methanolic extract of leaves samples were used for the phytochemical analysis to find out the quantitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents in the plants.
  • 1.7                                                  DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • Most frequently used terms in this work are defined as below:
  • DELONIX REGIA: Delonix regia is a species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae native to Madagascar. It is noted for its fern-like leaves and flamboyant display of orange-red flowers over summer.
  • PHYTOCHEMICALS: These are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and others as traditional medicine.
  • MEDICINAL PLANT: This is a plant that is used with the intention of maintaining health, to be administered for a specific condition, or both, whether in modern medicine or in traditional medicine.
  • ANTIMICROBIAL: An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi.
  • References
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  2. Argal MS, Kumar S, Choudhary HS, Thakkar RM, Verma SK, Seniy C. The efficacy of Murraya koenigii leaf extract on some bacterial and a fungal strain by Disc Diffusion Method. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2011; 3(5):697-704
  3. Chan EWC, Lim YY, Omar M. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of leaves of etlingera species (Zingiberaceae) in peninsular Malaysia. Food Chem. 2007; 104:1586-93.
  4. Cragg GM, Boyd MR, Khanna R, Kneller R, Mays TD, Mazan K, et al. International collaboration in drug discovery and development the NCI experience. Pure Appl. Chem. 1999; 71:1619-1633.
  5. Dehpour AA, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Roudgar A, Nabavi SF, Nabavi SM. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Consolida orientalis. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. 2011; 73:162
  6. Doughari JH, Okafor B. Antimicrobial Activity of Senna alata Linn. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2007; 10:17-21.
  7. Ehiowemwenguan G, Inetianbor JE and Yakubu J M. Antimicrobial Qualities of Senna Alata. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2014; 9(2):47-52.
  8. Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. The value of plants used in tradi- tional medicine for drug discovery. Environ. Health Perspect. 2001; 109:69-75.
  9. Hill AF. Economic botany: a text book of useful plants and plant products end. 2nd ed. Mc. Gram – Hill book company Inc. New York. 1952; 19:52-60
  10. Jain B, Kanzarkar A, Jain VK. Comparative analysis of the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of five selected Indian medicinal plants on human pathogenic microorganisms. Asian J Bio chem. Pharm. Res. 2011; 2:437-442.
  11. Kumar GS, Jayaveera KN, Kumar C, Sanjay UP, Swamy BM, Kumar DV. Antimicrobial effects of Indian medicinal plants against acne inducing bacteria. Afr. J Online, 2007; 6:717-723.


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