nutritional, microbiological and sensory characteristics of malted soy-kunu zaki: an improved traditional beverage case study of bells university or technology

xvxEnrichment with soymilk and malting increased the protein, amino acid, ash and moisture content of the improved kunu-zaki. Malting resulted in a decrease in carbohydrate and fat content.

Original price was: ₦ 3,000.00.Current price is: ₦ 2,999.00.



xvxEnrichment with soymilk and malting increased the protein, amino acid, ash and moisture content of the improved kunu-zaki. Malting resulted in a decrease in carbohydrate and fat content. The protein content of the malted samples ranged between 2.79% and 3.82% while that of unmalted was 2.36%. There was decrease in the concentration of phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor after malting but the concentration increased as soymilk was added




Kunu, a traditional non alcoholic beverage made mainly from millet, is of low viscosity and has a sweet-sour taste, milky cream in appearance and is popular with people of northern Nigeria [1]. Kunu is consumed on its own by adults as a thirst quencher or serves as refreshment in some communities. It is sometimes used as a weaning drink for infants. However, since this drink is produced from cereals, its protein is incomplete and needed to be supplemented [2]. The major important cereals which are used in the preparation of kunu are millet, maize, guinea corn, sorghum and rice. During the preparation of kunu, the ingredients needed are ginger (zingiber officinales), Aligator pepper (Afromonium melegueta), red pepper (Capsicum species), black pepper (Piper guinense) and kakandoru or Eru. All these ingredients perform one function or the other in the course of the preparation. The most abundant constituent of kunu is water and it acts as the medium in which all other constituents are dissolved and contain only traces amount of inorganic substances. The nutritive value of kunu is highly due to the presence of protein, carbohydrates and some vitamin especially the vitamin B [3].

Kunu-zaki however seem to be highly nutritious with relatively low cost of production. It is being prepared from local cereals which are very common and part of our stable food substances. Kunu produced from malted millet, a portion of the cereal is malted, dried, ground and then mixed with the uncooked portion. The mixture is then added to the cooked portion and stirred vigorously and allowed to ferment [4]. The hydrolytic enzyme (amylase) in the malted cereal aids in digesting the thick slurry thereby converting the complex carbohydrate to simple sugars. The final product is usually sweet. [4], reported that kunu-zaki produced with the addition of ground malted rice to either millet, sorghum or maize resulted in 33%, 44%, 63% increases in crude protein, fats and carbohydrate. Kunu is taken after a meal as a supplement or to quench thirst. It is widely accepted as food drink in some urban centre especially in the Hausa land [5]. It is greatly consumed by a large number of people ranging from market women and men including young and old at home. The quality and quantity of the products depend largely on the quality of the ingredients and its proper handling in the course of production by the producer. The products could be obtained qualitatively after 2 days and it could be stored for another 3 days when refrigerated [3].

Processing can play a prominent role in preventing postharvest losses. It may actually be seen as the most important component of any nation’s agro-industry. The establishment of processing facilities is, in itself, a first essential step in the stimulation of both consumer demand for the processed product, and of adequate supply of raw materials for processing. Processing of local food drinks is also governed by these principles. It can be observed that the volume of such drinks being produced at the cottage level seems to be relatively small, when compared with the potentials available.

Kunu is mostly taken by low class people and the beverage is becoming widely acceptable throughout Nigeria, so this research is embarked upon to improve the nutritional value and acceptability of this product in order to meet the daily dietary requirements of the consumers. Kunu-zaki is a cereal based product which is low in protein content, malting and fortification with soybeans will improve the nutritional quality of the beverage.

1.2                                   PROBLEM STATEMENT

Drinks are sold in every institution most especially at the entrance gate of the institution. It was discovered that some student are allergy to one or more nutrients due to their health challenge. Most time students are ignorance of the nutritional value of local drinks they take which are packaged by food vendors as a result of that it exposes them to different kind of health challenge. This study was carried out to determine the nutritional value of popular drinks sold at Bells University.

1.3                          AIM / OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main aim of this study is to determine the nutritional value of popular drinks sold at Bells University. The objectives are:

  1. To provides details of the standards as they apply to all drinks sold in school
  2. It also explains the reasons why nutritional standards have been introduced and offers practical advice on how to implement the standards.

1.4                             SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study has served as a means of understanding the nutritional standards for drinks in schools, which all grant‑aided schools should adhere to. It has also served as manual for knowing what the kind of drinks to take while in school. This study recognizes the important role of schools in contributing to student nutrition and the development of the knowledge and skills necessary to make healthier food choices. It also forms part of the Investing for Health strategy, which is committed to improving students’ health and wellbeing.


The main purpose of this work is to enlighten student of the institution on how to drink healthy drinks in order to live healthier.

Diet is central to health, and student’s diet is an important influence on their health now and in the future. Good nutrition in student can help protect against chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer in later life. Cardiovascular disease and cancer are our biggest killers and a poor diet is the biggest contributor to cancer deaths after smoking, and may be responsible for up to a third of all cancer deaths.  A healthy diet  is protective against cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke and cancer.


1.5                                             LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

There are many drinks sold in that institution, but in this study we are going to determine the nutritional composition of malted cereal, soymilk and kunu-zaki which are the most popular drinks sold in the environment.

1.6                                    RESEARCH QUESTION

How is nutritional content determined?

What is nutritional composition?

Do all drinks sold in the institution nutritious?

1.7                             APPLICATION OF THE STUDY

This study provides practical guidance which aimed at supporting all health professionals, teachers, pupils, caterers and others in implementing healthier drinking in schools.

1.8                                             RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In the course of carrying this study, numerous sources were used which most of them are by visiting libraries, consulting journal and news papers and online research which Google was the major source that was used.

1.9                                   PROJECT ORGANISATION

The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work,   chapter two presents the literature review of the study,  chapter three describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.



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