Investigation Into The Suitability Of Sand And Gravel Materials Commonly Used In Building Construction

The Aim of this project is to investigate into the suitability of sand and gravel material use in the construction of buildings.

Original price was: ₦ 3,000.00.Current price is: ₦ 2,999.00.



Title page                                                                                                                                i

Declaration                                                                                                                              ii

Certification                                                                                                                            iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  v

Table of contents                                                                                                                    vi

Abstract                                                                                                                                  vii


1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.1       Statement of the problem                                                                                           1

1.2       Aim and objectives                                                                                                     2

1.2.1    Objectives of the study                                                                                               2

1.3       Justification of the study                                                                                            2

1.4       Scope of study                                                                                                                        3

1.5       Methodology                                                                                                              3


2.0       Literature review                                                                                                         4

2.1       Cement                                                                                                                        6

2.1.1    Properties of cement                                                                                                   7

2.2       Water                                                                                                                          8

2.3       Sand                                                                                                                            8

2.4       Granite                                                                                                                                    9

2.5       Grading of aggregate                                                                                                  9

2.6       mix proportion method                                                                                               9


3.0       Research methodology                                                                                               10

3.1       Mold acquisition                                                                                                         10

3.2       Quantity of materials needed for a concrete cube                                                      10

3.2.1    Procedure uses                                                                                                            13

3.3       Mix design                                                                                                                  14

3.3.1    Sorting and mixing procedure                                                                                                14

3.4       Sieve size analysis                                                                                                       15

3.4.1    Sieve analysis test                                                                                                       15

3.4.2    Preparation for sieve analysis test                                                                               16 Procedure for sieve analysis test                                                                                 16

3.5       Concrete slump test                                                                                                   16

3.5.1    Principle of slump test                                                                                                17

3.5.2    Apparatus                                                                                                                    17

3.5.3    Procedure for slump test                                                                                             17

3.5.4    Limitation of the slump test                                                                                        18

3.5.5    Differences in standard                                                                                              18

3.6       Compressive strength test                                                                                           18


4.0       Result and discussion                                                                                                            28


5.0       Conclusion and recommendation                                                                               32

References                                                                                                                              32


            This report comprises the use of aggregate both fine and coarse aggregate in the production of concrete, these coarse aggregate are strong in compressive strength of concrete. The coarse and fine aggregate that posses both physical and mechanical properties in the production of concrete which in a correct proportion to give desire strength of the concrete. The mixing ratio that was used is 1:2:4 which known as pure mixing and the other ratio is ratio 1:3:6. 1:2:4 gives 1 head pan of cement with 2 head pan of sharp sand or fine aggregate while 4 head pan for coarse aggregate. After the production of the casted cube, curing was carried out. The duration of the curing is 7 days, 14 days, 28 days. After the curing days, compressive strength test was performed to determine the suitability of the sand and gravel materials in the strength of concrete generally used in the building construction.



Sand and Gravel (Aggregate) are generally used in construction of building and other structures such as Lintel, Slab, Beam and Column. When concrete is freshly mixed the aggregates are suspended in cement, water, air bubble paste. Selection of types and size gradation of the aggregate depend upon the nature of the aggregate employed, a fairly precise balanced between the amount of fine and coarse aggregate size fraction may have to be maintained to achieve the desire mobility, plasticity and freedom from segregation (Olajide B.T 2013). Presence of aggregate provides an enormous contact area for intimate bond between the paste and the aggregate surfaces. Rigidity of aggregate greatly restrains volume change of the whole mass. Aggregate (sand and gravel) can be classified by their mineral, chemical, and physical properties, aggregate physical properties and direct result of its mineral and chemical properties, significantly improve the workability of the fresh concrete are contributed by proper choice of aggregate, this improvement is important in the properties of hardened concrete as well, such as properties and pavement slipperiness.


This research work is comprises the finding of the fine and coarse aggregate from different area in Ilorin metropolis and uses of different aggregate size for the production of concrete and the compressive strength test is carryout to determine the compressive strength of concrete produced with different sizes of coarse aggregate.


The Aim of this project is to investigate into the suitability of sand and gravel material use in the construction of buildings.


  1. To determine how gravel can be use for commercial purpose.
  2. To determine the strength capacity of the two materials i.e. sand and gravel for the purpose of construction.
  3. To be able to recommend a particular practicable design ratio for aggregate in the construction of a building.


The sand and gravel has been the principal construction material worldwide. Sand and gravel represent loose sediments originated by transport and deposition of more or less worn rock fragmented of certain size (Gravel 2 to 129mm, sand 0.065 to 2mm) which is the product of the weathering of rocks.

The ultimate use of sand and gravel determines the ratio of combination of sand and gravel size, the shape, rock type and composition. Sand and gravel are used mostly in the building industry in concrete mixtures, as drainage and filtration layers, road base fill and for foundation stabilization, e.g. sand are used in the building industry in mortar and concrete mixtures as an opening material in production of bricks.


This research work is based on the experiment conducted in the laboratory of sand and gravel of Kwara State Polytechnic Ilorin to determine the grade of particular size, likewise the strength. The scope is as follows:

  1. To perform sieve analysis test on fine and coarse aggregate.
  2. The production of concrete cube
  3. The compressive strength test.

The method used in this project is the selection of different size of aggregate and the uses of those aggregate in the production of concrete according to British standard (B.S. 8110). The production of concrete cube is carried out and curing also takes place after the production in order to achieve maximum strength. There is production for 7days, 14days, 21days and 28days and compressive strength machine is use for the crushing which gives the actual strength for each production per day. The essence of this laboratory test is to determine the suitability of sand and gravel of different size particles in concrete production use in building construction works.



In the past century buildings were made with mold materials which was normally mixed with hand, this method is still in operation in most villages (Neville, 2001) then later they developed using clay brick and masonry works.

However, the uses of these materials for construction work water found to be inadequate due to their various limitations because it results in rough and irregular surface finishing coupled with their ability to accommodate service materials such as water pipes network and develop crack which are difficult to amend.

In order to overcome the cracking problem the ideal of using sand and gravel (aggregate) with binding agents use in building construction came up. The sand and gravel (aggregate) have the following advantages.


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