Factors That Influence The Growth Of Cultism In Tertiary Institutions

The purpose of this study is to find out the factor that influences the growth of cultism in school.

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The purpose of this study is to find out the factor that influences the growth of cultism in school.

In carrying out this study, a questionnaire was designed and administered to the student in College of Education, Ekiadolor – Benin.

The data collected were analyzed and interpreted. It was observed that power, security, wealth, parents, peer groups and amongst others are he major factors that influence the growth of cultism in schools.

In the light of the findings, recommendations were proffered in the hope that if carefully considered and implemented by individuals, organization and bodies they would help in reducing cultism in schools.



1.1       Background to the study

1.2       Statement of problems

1.3       Research question

1.4       Purpose of study

1.5       Significance of study

1.6       Scope of study

1.7       Limitation of study

1.8       Definition of terms


2.1      Concept of Secret Cult                                                      12

2.2      Meaning of Cultism                                                                       16

2.3      History of Cultism in Nigeria                                           20

2.4      Reasons Why People Join Cults                                      23

2.5      Existence of Cult Group on Campuses              26

2.6      Effect of Cult Activities                                                      30

2.7      Suggested Method of Curbing Cultism                        38

2.8      Summary of the Reviewed of Related Literature 43


3.1      Research Design                                                                 44

3.2      Population of the Study                                                   44

3.3      Sample and Sampling Techniques                                 45

3.4      Instrumentation                                                                 45

3.5      Validity of the Instrument                                               46

3.6      Reliability of the Instrument                                           46

3.7      Administration of the Instrument                                 47

3.8      Method Data Analysis                                                       47


4.1      Results                                                                                               48

4.2      Hypotheses Testing                                                                       50

4.3      Discussion of Findings                                                       54


5.1      Summary                                                                                          57

5.2      Conclusion                                                                           58

5.3      Implications of the Study                                                             59

5.4      Recommendations                                                                         59

5.5      Limitations of the Study                                                   60

5.6      Suggestions for Further Study                                       60

REFERENCES                                                                                                61

APPENDIX                                                                                        63


1.0                                                        INTRODUCTION

All over the world, universities have often been regarded and referred to as citadels of learning. The also applied to the Nigeria universities until recently when as a result of incessant secret cult activities the centres of learning have become centers of violence. Indeed, Gimba (2000) in referring to the cult activities in the universities as offering B.SC in violence and “MA” in cultism. As has been observed by Eneji (1996) almost everyday, there are new stories of devilish acts perpetrated by secret cults on campuses. In describing the situation of cultism. Eneji (1996) asserts from the universities to the polytechnics, college of education and other tertiary institutions and some secondary schools, come stories of violence.

According to the Oxford Concise dictionary of sociology (1996) gives the anthropological definitions of a cult as a set of practices and beliefs of a group in relation to a local god. It also gives a sociological definition of it as a small group of religious activities whose beliefs and typical secret, esoteric and individualistic. Ogumbameru (1997) defines a secret cult as an organization whose activities as kept away from the knowledge of others. These activities are essentially covers, designed and are usually carried out behind closed doors. From this definition cults now popularly known as confraternities, have assumed a monstrous features in our institution of higher learning. To this end therefore our various campuses, which were hitherto a mode of intellectual quest and social uplift most have become citadel of violence and terrorism.

The pertinent question that one may ask is the phenomenon of cult just entering our institution of higher learning? The answer is simply no. this is because international figure have been know t be members of the pirates confraternity in their college days or universities.

Furthermore, when there was a violent clash between the Eiye confraternity and the Buccaneers at the universities of Ibadan in 1989 some notable professors and doctors at the institution were found to the patrons and bankers of these cults. The implication is that these professors and doctors were members of these cults in their own college days. We find and disturbing trend of the proliferation of campuses cult in or institutions of higher learning, such cults are Viking the black axe, the morphine, the buccaneers, the pirates, the black arrow to mention but a few have become a familiar features in our institutions.

However, what arrested the attention of the government and the society at large is the introductions of violent, savagery and terrorism into the present day cult a diametrical contrast to what obtained in yester – years. It is now common in or campuses that factors of naval cults violently clash even in broad day light and manta themselves down with dangerous weapons such as guns and daggers, nocturnal initiation ceremonies in which initiates are animalized and some of then die in the process making blood covenants and performing other occultic rituals, organized opposition against any kind of oppression real or imagined liberal consumption of alcohol, use of drugs, intimidation and use of violent, extortion, stealing, armed robbers, arson, sexual abuse and rape, examination malpractice, maiming, manslaughter and murder. The recent occurrence are the university of Ile-Ife, Benin Ekpoma, Ibadan and of the course college of education, Ekiadolor to mention but a few artist to these facts. This is what led to the public to speak against the societal evil calling to its total eradication.

1.1                                           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Campus cult in Nigeria have been traced back to 1952 when Prof. Wole Soyinka, winner of the 1986 Noble prize for literature and a group of six friends formed the Pirates Confraternity Elite of the University college Ibadan, then part of the University of London [1]. It was formed with the aim of producing future Nigeria leaders who should be very proud of their Africa heritage. They have skull and cross bones as their logo while members adopted confraternity names as ‘’Capon’ Blood’’ and ‘’Long John Silver’’. The pirates cultivated a style that ridiculed colonial attitude [2]. They proved popular among students even after the original members moved on. Membership was opened to every male students regardless of tribe or race [3] and [4]. For almost 20 years, the pirate a non-violent body become established in all tertiary institution that emerged in post independent Nigeria as the only confraternity on Nigeria campus. The emergence of campus cult as they are known in Nigeria today began with a split of early 1970s, in pirates confraternity. 1972 Bolaji Carew and several others were expelled from the pirates for failing to meet expected standards [5]. In reaction to this and other events, the pirates registered themselves under the name National Association of Seadogs [NAS]. The Buccaneers of Seadogs was founded by Carew. In 1980s confraternities spread over the 300 institutions of higher education in the country. The Neo-Black movement of Africa [Black Axe] emerged from University of Benin in Edo state while the Supreme Eiye confraternity [National Association of Air Lords] broken off from Black Axe in 1983  [6]. Students at the University of Calabar in cross River State founded the Eternal Fraternal Order of the Legion Consortium [the Klansmens Konfraternity] while a former member of Buccaneers confraternity started the Supreme Vikings confraternity [the Adventures of the De Norsemen Club of Nigeria ] the following year [8].

In the mid 80s, it had become evident that some of the cults had been adopted as elements in the intelligence and the security services serving the then military government. They were used against students union and University staff who were the only organized groups opposing military rule [9], [10], [11] and [12].

In 1984, Prof Wole Soyinka, extricated himself from emerging trend, initiated the abolition of the pirates confraternity in all tertiary institution, by then the phenomena of violent cults had developed a life of its own. In early 1990s as the end of the second Republic drew near, confraternity activities expanded dramatically in the Niger Delta as they engaged in a bloody struggle for supremacy. The family confraternity [The campus mafia or The mafia], which modeled itself after the Italian mafia, emerged, shortly after their arrival, several students were expelled from Abia State University for cheating and ‘’cultism ‘’ a reference to the voodoo- practicing confraternities, which marked the beginning of a shift of confraternity activities from the university to off campus.

The Brotherhood of the Blood [also known as Two-Two [Black Beret] another notorious confraternity was founded at Enugu State University of Science and Technology. Cults established in early 1990s are; Second Son of Satan [SSS], Night Cadet, Sonmen, Mgba Mgba Brothers, Temple of Eden, Trogan Horse, Jurists, White Bishops, Gentlemen Clubs, Fame, Executioners, Dreded Friends, Eagle club, Black Scorpion, Red Sea Horse, Fraternity of Friends The klansmen konfraternity expanded their influence by creating a Street and Creek Wing,, Deebam to expanded their influence by creating a street and Creek wing, Deebam to fight for and control territory outside the Universities through violence and crime. In response, the supreme Vikings Confraternity


The fundamental problems of cultism are the uncertain and unsafe atmosphere in or campuses even to the activities of members of secret cult. Their manner of operation is both sinister and bizarre living behind them, a frail of wants destruction. Most distressing of the problems is the spate of killing in our campuses in recent times, many lives have been terminated permanently.

In spite of measure put in place by the various arm of government and school administrators, aimed at combating the ugly trend of cultism, the phenomenon’s to be gaining more popularly ad prominence on our campuses.

Thus, the researcher intend to make an in-depth study into the factors which create the tearful climate that encourage the growth and spread of cultism in our institutions of higher learning with a view to proffer solutions to the problems.


Does power, security and wealth are some of the factors that influence the growth of cultism in schools? Do parents and peer groups also influence the growth of cultism? It is alleged that students of the affluent are most involved in cultism? Students whose parents are members of secret cult are likely to belong to secret cult? Does power, ego affection, menace of cultism sanction can also contribute to the growth of cultism in schools.


The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that encourage the growth of cultism in our institution of higher; learning with view to educate the public about the extent of the social problems.


This study will provide expository factors which encourage the growth and spread of cultism in our institution of higher learning. This will therefore provide planer and implementers of policies with the factors that influence cultism in schools. These when know will enable them to fight cultism squarely and help eradicate the problems that has become a canker worm in our institution of higher learning.


This study will involved the total population of the college f education, Ekiadolor that is both staff and students.


Cult: A system of religions worship especially one that is expressed in rituals

Cultism: Is the state or phenomenon where person are sound together with a common beliefs

Hitherto: This means until now or until a particular time

Quest: The act of seeking or a long search or to find.

Sinister: Evil

Bizarre: Strange

Noron: New initiated cult members

1.9                                                            HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis One

There is no significant difference in factors that influence the growth of cultism on male and female student.

Hypothesis Two

There is no significant difference in the factors that influence of cultism in tertiary institution on young and old students

Hypothesis Three

There is no significant difference in the factors that influence of cultism in tertiary institution in Christian and Muslim students.

Hypothesis Four

There is no significant difference in factors that influence of cultism in tertiary institution students from literate and illiterate homes.



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