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Extraction And Biochemical Analysis Of Palm Kernel Oil

The kernel of the Elaeis guinensis palm fruits were collected, analyzed and the composition and of oil extracted was investigated.

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ABSTRACT

The kernel of the Elaeis guinensis palm fruits were collected, analyzed and the composition and of oil extracted was investigated. The effect of time and drying temperature (in sun and in electric ovens) of palm kernel on the quality of palm kernel oil obtained were studied. The liquid content of the kernel oil was 52.76%. The major fatty acids in kernel oil were about 54.51 % lauric acid, 15.49% myristic acid and “.53% oleic acid. Palm kernel oil was about 88.58% saturated and [1.37% unsaturated. Hexane extracted oil from the collected kernels gives 9.58%as oleic acid, 3.59 as peroxide value.  for oil with acceptable qualities, kernels destined for extraction need  to have  dried in the whole state and deprived from flour smash during 6 days. the research of optimal conditions during sun drying of different kernels size at different times showed that oil extracted from flour have much in the fatty acids after 10 days drying as compared to other samples dried in  the same conditions.  In addition, the peroxide number of this oil sample from flours very high (127.45 meqkg). In electrical air dryer, the regression model have shown that  it is suitable to dry at t < 1200e for> 100min, so as to have perfect dehydration without loss of fats. Less acidic oils (percent oleic acid< 1.5) are obtained when working at temperature >60oC for>100min. high peroxide value (>30meq) are obtained from drying kernel for high temperature (> 1200C) or from drying kernel for <300min. finally. in an electrical air dryer, kernels have to be dried between 60 and during 300-400 min to limit the fat losses and to obtain oil  with poor free fatty acids and less oxidized.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page…………………………………………………………………………………….i

Certification…………………………………………………………………………………..ii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………iii

Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………………………iv

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………..v

Table of content………………………………………………………………………vi-vii

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction ………………………………………………………………………1-3

      Chapter Two

2.0  literature review………………………………………………………………….4

2.2 History…………………………………………………………………………………4-4

2.3  Nutrition……………………………………………………………………………..5-8

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and method……………………………………………………….9-12

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result and discussion………………………………………………………………13-15

4.1 impact of sun drying on the loss of mass of kernels on the chemical indices of oil…………………………………………………..15-18

4.2 impact of the electrical drying on the loss of mass of kernels and on the chemical valves of oil ………………….………19-23

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion/ Recommendation……………………………………………..24

5.1 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………24

5.2 Recommendation……………………………………………………………….24-25

References

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

The palm oil tree (Elaeis guinensis) is a monoique plant similar to  the coconut palm. It grows straight and being able to reach 30m in the nature or 15m in calture. It has no branches, but a trunk and sheet (vandenput, 1981). Fruits form prematurely on young palm trees of hardly three (3) years. They are more or less fleshy, similar to small plums, length from 2-3cm, elongated egg-shaped of reddish colours, gathered in big clusters of 3-1Skg called regimes. Its fruits are constituted of a pericarpe, the pulp containing 40.S% of palm oil and 20% of fibre. The walnut has a hard hull or shell, which surrounds a kernel. It is from these kernel that palm kernel oil is extracted, also known as lauric oil because of its high content in lauric acid (Detheux,2004). The extraction of palm oil is made by various techniques and obtained oil is used as well in the food domain as non-food domains. In the food domain, it is used in the preparation of certain traditional dishes and enters also in the constitution of food fats (Dosumno and ochu, 1995; Alonso et al, 2000). In the non-food domain, it’s higher proportion in lauric acid gives  to this oil an important characteristic used in the industries of beauty care and soap factory. This property also, characterizes its  strong use in traditional phamacoppoeia ( Salmiah et al,1998). affter the ended harvest of fruits, palm oil is extracted from the pulp by hot pressure and its after drying of walnuts, crushing, sorting and mechanical grinding that we obtain the yellowish or  whitish palm kernel oil.

Concerning the black color oil, it is obtained only after wire netting. The sun exposure of kernels obtained after crushing of walnuts, or their drying in electric ovens was identified as treatments responsible for the variability of the quantity of oil (Tiencheu, 2006; Tenyang, 2006). The natural drying in the sun is made under radiation of weak temperatures, varying daily, creating an environment favourable to the chemical and enzymatic reactions of hydrolysis and oxidation (Tenyang, 2006). The temperature and the time applied during the drying in electric. vary from a producer to another. Kernels are dried between 70-120°C till the beginning of the exudation of oil. So, by proceeding, there is not only loss of oil, but also the variation of the temperature and of time entail biochemical modifications of fact, which are explained by the variation of the acidity and the degree of oxidation (Tiencheu, 2006). The aims of the present research search are to determine the conditions of the drying to sun and in electric ovens susceptible to alter the quality of the oil and afterward to determine the levels of these factors, which minimize the production of free fatty acids and the oxidation of the fat.

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