Effects Of Urban Land Use Planning And Management On The Development Of Benue State

This paper examines the effect of urban land use planning and management practices in Benue, Nigeria with the aim of identifying how to improve it and achieve sustainable city development in the country.

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This paper examines the effect of urban land use planning and management practices in Benue, Nigeria with the aim of identifying how to improve it and achieve sustainable city development in the country. It highlights land use planning and management policies and regulations in the city. It further discusses the implications of uncoordinated land use management in context of developing world cities and suggests how to improve the present inefficient practices. The paper draws on a systematic survey of land use mechanisms and activities, departments and agencies of government responsible for land use planning and management as well as individuals involved in land use activities including land owners in the study area. The paper revealed that land use management in the city has been wholly concerned with the granting of statutory right of occupancy and approval of plans to use land for different purposes, without adequate monitoring of its outcomes. It also shows that land management and control tools are either not available or weakly implemented and disjointed and uncoordinated since several organizations and agencies are involved without a coordinating agency or an overall land use plan within which effective land use management can be undertaken. It suggests a reorganization of urban land use planning and management machinery in the area and institutionalization of Local Planning Authority as indispensable to achieving sustainable land use planning and management in the city.


Title page- – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – i

Approval page- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – ii

Dedication- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -iii

Acknowledgement  – – – – – – – – – –  – –  – – – – – – – – – -iv

Abstract- – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -v

Table of content- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -vi


  • Introduction
  • Background of the Study
  • Objective of the study
  • Significance of the Research
  • Scope of the Research
  • Limitation of the Study


  • Introduction
  • Source of data
  • Primary data
  • Secondary data
  • Research instrument
  • Viability of research instrument
  • Method data analysis



  • Data presentation
    • Test of research Questions


5.1 Conclusion

5.2  research questionnaire

5.3 Recommendation

5.4 Reference



1.1                                           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Land-use planning is the general term used for a branch of urban planning encompassing various disciplines which seek to order and regulate land use in an efficient and ethical way, thus preventing land-use conflicts. Governments use land-use planning to manage the development of land within their jurisdictions. In doing so, the governmental unit can plan for the needs of the community while safeguarding natural resources. To this end, it is the systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternatives for land use, and economic and social conditions in order to select and adopt the best land-use options. Often one element of a comprehensive plan, a land-use plan provides a vision for the future possibilities of development in neighborhoods, districts, cities, or any defined planning area.

In Nigeria, the terms land-use planning, regional planning, urban planning, and urban design are often used interchangeably, and will depend on the state, county, and/or project in question. Despite confusing nomenclature, the essential function of land-use planning remains the same whatever term is applied. The Canadian Institute of Planners offers a definition that land-use planning means the scientific, aesthetic, and orderly disposition of land, resources, facilities and services with a view to securing the physical, economic and social efficiency, health and well-being of urban and rural communities. The American Planning Association states that the goal of land-use planning is to further the welfare of people and their communities by creating convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient, and attractive environments for present and future generations.

1.2                                               OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective in urban land use planning is to promote the following through interactive planning and sufficient assessment of impact:

  1. a safe, healthy, pleasant, socially functional living and working environment which provides for the needs of various population groups, such as children, the elderly and the handicapped in Benue state;
  2. economical urban structure and land use;
  3. protection of the beauty of the built environment and of cultural values;
  4. biological diversity and other natural values;
  5. environmental protection and prevention of environmental hazards;
  6. provident use of natural resources;
  7. functionality of communities and good building;
  8. economical urban development;
  9. favourable business conditions;
  10. availability of services;
  11. an appropriate traffic system and, especially, public transport and non-motorized traffic

1.3                                THE PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The comprehensive plan, also known as a general plan, master plan or urban land use plan, is a document designed to guide the future actions of a community. It presents a vision for the future; with long-range goals and objectives for all activities that affect the local government. This includes guidance on how to make decisions on public and private land development proposals; the expenditure of public funds; availability of tax policy (tax incentives); cooperative efforts; and issues of pressing concern (such as farmland preservation, or the rehabilitation of older neighborhoods areas). Most plans are written to provide direction for future activities over a ten to twenty year period after plan adoption. However, plans should receive a considered review and possible update every five years.

1.4                                           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

  • The plan provides continuity. The plan provides continuity across time, and gives successive public bodies a common framework for addressing land use issues in Benue state.
  • It is the means by which a community can balance competing private interests. Planning seeks to strike a balance among the many competing demands on land by creating development patterns that are orderly and rational, provide the greatest benefits for individuals and the community as a whole, and avoid nuisance conflicts between land uses in Benue state.
  • It is the means by which a community can protect public investments. Planning is the means by which a community avoids digging up last year’s new road to lay this year’s new sewer pipe. Well planned, orderly, and phased development patterns are also less expensive for Benue state to provide with public services than low density, scattered development.
  • It allows communities to plan development in a way that protects valued resources. Planning can identify environmental features like wetlands, agricultural lands, woods, and steep slopes and suggest strategies for preserving those resources from destruction or degradation by inappropriate development.
  • It provides guidance for shaping the appearance of the community. A plan can set forth policies that foster a distinctive sense of place.
  • It promotes economic development. The plan contains valuable information that drives the location decisions of prospective firms.
  • It provides justification for decisions. Plans provide a factual and objective basis to support zoning decisions, and can be used by communities to defend their decisions if challenged in court.
  • Through public dialogue, citizens express a collective vision for the future. Last, but certainly not least, the planning process provides citizens an opportunity to brainstorm, debate and discuss the future of their community. A plan developed through a robust public input process enjoys strong community support. Subsequent decisions that are consistent with the plan’s policies are less likely to become embroiled in public controversy.

1.4                                   LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Land use regulation leads to reduced emissions from transportation systems, less average commuting time, cultural flowering in new public spaces, less crime, and most importantly, a much greater capacity to be informed about one’s city and a greater capacity to broadly communicate the advantages of such regulation. This, in turn, leads to a less corrupt government, a very strong citizen-participation system, a much greater flow of information, and a much more intelligent use of it by citizens and organizations (Condon and others 2009). Furthermore, if the mechanisms and principles of land use planning are applied correctly, they should yield developed areas with densities sufficient to support mass transit, and increase the number of public transit trips while reducing their length. Additional benefits include reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and discharges of water and solid waste, and increased greenery in urbanized areas, thus increasing capacity to capture some of the emissions. In the long run, this should slowly yield patterns of human behavior that lead to better health and fewer deaths from transportation accidents, diabetes, lung cancer, and coronary disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated the relations between land use, transportation, and public health. Land use planning can give rise to some complex phenomena that can exacerbate the pollution levels typically seen in developing countries. Often, large informal settlements arise on the fringes of decaying parts of urban areas that are mainly residential but often industrial. This gives rise to a number of social issues as well as environmental degradation in Benue state. Traffic and congestion patterns, frequently the result of a population commuting long distances on unfinished or unregulated mass transit systems, greatly affect air quality in urban space, and thus quality of life. In addition, land use planning is limited by governmental capacity. For instance, a government may lack the ability to protect the environment or to provide proper handling of residues and byproducts. Finally, the aggressive nature with which some governments promote their economy by recruiting businesses and industries to their jurisdiction without regard for negative.


2.0                                                    LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1                               HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Urban Land-use planning often leads to land-use regulation, which typically encompasses zoning. Zoning regulates the types of activities that can be accommodated on a given piece of land, as well as the amount of space devoted to those activities, and the ways that buildings may be situated and shaped


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