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Effect Of Temperature In Fluidity On The Distribution Of Aluminium Alloy Casting

The investigation studies the effect of pouring temperatures and rates on the mechanical properties of Aluminum alloy castings. The castings were produced at different pouring temperatures and speeds.

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Description

ABSTRACT

The investigation studies the effect of pouring temperatures and rates on the mechanical properties of Aluminum alloy castings. The castings were produced at different pouring temperatures and speeds. The speed range is 2.0 cm/s to 16.0 cm/s, while the temperature range for the investigation is 680oC to 750oC. The specimens were subsequently tested for quality and properties such as hardness and strength. Observations and results indicated that lower pouring temperatures, nearer to the melting temperatures of the alloys produced good quality castings with the optimum values of hardness and strength as 65.5 and 112 N/mm2 respectively. The optimum pouring speed is in the range of 2.2 cm/s to 2.8cm/s, where the hardness and strength were 65.4 and 127 N/mm2 respectively.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWELDGEMENT

ABSTRCT

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
  • ADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECT
  • APPLICATION OF THE STUDY
  • SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1      OVERVIEW OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY

2.2     ENGINEERING USE AND PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

2.3       ALUMINIUM ALLOYS VERSUS TYPES OF STEEL

2.4     HEAT SENSITIVITY CONSIDERATIONS

 CHAPTER THREE

3.0      METHODOLOGY

3.1      EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
3.2     DETERMINATION OF POURING SPEED

3.3     DETERMINATION OF POURING TEMPERATURES

3.4     TEST OF THE CAST PRODUCTS

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT ANALYSIS

4.1 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0      CONCLUSIONS AND REFERENCES

  • CONCLUSIONS

5.2     REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

1.0                                           CHAPTER ONE

To an engineer, the knowledge and understanding of casting parameters in casting different metals and alloys is as significant as the cast products. Metal casting is by definition any process of melting metal and pouring them into mould in order to produce the required shapes. Specific casting parameters such as pouring temperatures, rate of pouring, fluidity and composition of metals are of topmost importance for consideration if sound casting is to be achieved.

It has been observed [1] that melting and pouring conditions directly or indirectly affects such mechanical properties of cast materials as: hardness, percentage elongation, percentage reduction in diameter, toughness and so on. For instance an investigation on pouring rate of some ferrous metals [2] revealed that metals such as steels have very high freezing rate compared to most other alloys castings. The optimum pouring speed is also found to be a function of the casting size and shape.

The knowledge of melting temperature of metals and alloys is necessary to estimate their corresponding pouring temperature [3]. Aluminum alloy casting has melting temperature of 660°C [4] with its corresponding pouring temperature range to be between 700°C-750°C. It was also stated by Lindberg [5] that this melting temperature may be as low as 649°C.

In this paper, the efforts made in ‘sand casting’ Aluminum alloy of the same size and shape at selected pouring temperatures and rates is presented. The cast alloys were examined for mechanical properties. The aim is to determine the optimum points at which these parameters produce good quality castings. It has been stated [6] that when pouring temperature is lower than optimum, the mould cavity will not fill the gate or riser will solidify too rapidly and intercept directional solidification. On the other hand, higher pouring temperature causes shrinkage of the casting and mould warping [7]. Above all, many casting defects result because the optimum casting conditions were not used during the casting process [7].

1.1                               OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

In this paper, the efforts made in ‘sand casting’ Aluminum alloy of the same size and shape at selected pouring temperatures and rates is presented. The cast alloys were examined for mechanical properties. The aim is to determine the optimum points (with different temperature value) at which these parameters produce good quality castings.

1.2                   ADVANTAGES OF ALUMINUM CASTINGS

  • In many cases, multi component welded or joined assemblies can be replaced with a single cast part. Aluminum castings are produced in a range of alloys demon.
  • Machining requirements are reduced. Striating wide versatility in the characteristics than can be achieved.
  • Aluminum castings display controlled variations in as-cast. More than 100 compositions are registered with the Aluminum finish.
  • Contrasts between as-cast and machined finishes can be high-Properties displayed by these alloys, without considering the ex- lighted to create pleasing cosmetic effects.
  • Capital requirements are typically less than for wrought prod-include.
  • Tooling can range from simple patterns to complex tool steel dies depending on product requirements and production quality, mechanical Fatigue limit,

1.3                             APPLICATION OF THE STUDY

Casting applications include innovative and complex designs serving the needs of diverse industries:

(a) Aircraft stabilizer.
(b) Golf irons.
(c) Crankcase for small engine.
(d) Cross member for a minivan.
(e) Cellular phone casing.

1.4                                    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Many aluminum casting alloys display excellent fluidity for the incentives to reduce fuel consumption while preserving product casting thin sections and fine detail. performance and cost objectives. Aluminum casting alloys melt at relatively low temperatures. The most cost-effective means of addressing these challenges. Aluminum casting processes can be highly automated has been the substitution of lightweight materials in existing and projected automotive designs.

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