Determination Of Nutritional Composition Of Smoothies

This study on the nutritional (proximate, mineral and vitamin contents) and antioxidant capacities of smoothies made from a blend of pineapple, banana and apple.

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This study on the nutritional (proximate, mineral and vitamin contents) and antioxidant capacities of smoothies made from a blend of pineapple, banana and apple. The results obtained were moisture (49.24–78.62%), total ash (1.01–9.71), crude fiber (5.14–9.39%), crude fat (0.72–1.86%), crude protein (5.47–19.37%) and carbohydrate (3.65–16.99%). Calcium (12.03–15.53) and potassium (17.22–25.38) were the predominant mineral elements when compared to magnesium (1.51–3.05) mg/L. The vitamin contents were in the ranges 2.5–10.8 and 0.15–0.93 mg/L for vitamins C and E, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were in the ranges 4.68–6.18 mg/mL and 0.01–0.14 mg/mL, respectively. The radical scavenging abilities (DPPH) of the samples ranged between 16.05% and 88.77%, while the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) ranged between 0.38 and 7.36 mg/mL. The brix values showed high sugar contents (15–18%) while the pH results showed that the sample was almost neutral at a range between 6.3 and 6.5. The overall quality (sensory) acceptability of the different quality parameters evaluated indicated that the control sample was more preferred.


Title page



Table of Content



1.0       Introduction

1.1       Statement of the Problem

1.2       Aim of the Study

1.3       Objectives of the Study

1.4       Justification of the Study

1.5       Significance of the Study

1.6      Methodology

1.7      Project organization


2.0       Introduction

2.1       Overview of Smoothies

2.2       Nutrition information of smoothies

2.3       Features of fruit smoothies

2.4       Health benefits of fruit smoothies

2.5       Potential risks of smoothies

2.6      bananas

2.6.1  Health benefits of banana

2.6.2    Nutrition Composition of banana

2.7       Pineapple

2.7.1  Health benefits of pineapple

2.7.2    Nutrition Composition of pineapple

2.8      Apple

2.8.1  Health benefits of pineapple

2.8.2   Nutritional Composition of apple



3.1       Materials

3.2       Methods

3.2.1    Analysis of the Smoothie

3.2.2    Determination of Vitamin C Content

3.2.3    Determination of Mineral Content

3.2.4    Determination of Total Flavonoid Content

3.2.5  Determination of Total Phenolic Content

3.2.6  Determination of Radical Scavenging Ability (DPPH)

3.2.8  Determination of Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)

3.2.9  Sensory Evaluation

3.3       Statistical Analysis



4.1       Nutritional Composition of Smoothies Supplement

4.2       Mineral Elements and Vitamin Compositions of Smoothies

4.3      The Phytochemical Composition of Smoothies

4.4      Sensory Evaluation of the Smoothies



5.1       Conclusion

5.2       Recommendation



1.0                                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1                                           BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The consumption of fresh fruit or fresh fruit juices is globally acknowledged due to its health promoting abilities [Zinoviadou, K.G, 2015], an often over-looked aspect is its somewhat restricted nutritional composition. In addition, markets for smoothie-like products are already established in some developing countries like nigeria, generating over billions of naira yearly respectively [Varela-Santos, 2015]. Fruits are generally rich sources of micronutrient–minerals and vitamins [Zinoviadou, K.G, 2015]. They are composed of varied micronutrients and a very viable, nutritionally efficient avenue for benefitting from the array of nutrients in fruits is through a beverage called a smoothie. Smoothies have been defined as a semi-liquid, mainly fruit-based product with a smooth consistency, or beverages that are produced from a blend of different fruits in appropriate proportions [Teleszko, M, 2014]. Smoothies, being a blend of a variety of fruits, therefore provide a good medium for obtaining the different micronutrients therein. However, since fruits are generally low in protein content, the resulting beverages (smoothies) will be deficient in this vital nutrient. A feasible means to address this is to supplement smoothies with other food materials. Besides the need to encourage consumption of more fruit, the concept of smoothies alsoresulted from the need for consumers to enrich their diets [Teleszko, M, 2014]. Therefore, the aim of this study was to nutritional composition of smoothies made from blended of pineapple, banana and apple.

1.1       Statement of the Problem

Due to an increase in the demand for fruit juice and vegetable beverage with the original characteristics of the fresh fruit beverage free from chemical additives in the potential food market, researchers and industrialists has embarked on the development of new technology that are able to improve the processing of these fruit-based beverages in various ways including the effect of thermal processing on the products in order to improve the sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of these beverages.

Majorly, people prefer drinking of carbonated drinks than natural fruits juices due to the conveniency it offers, cost, packaging and processing method of the drink, despite the fact that it is detrimental to health. That is, it is disaster to health which include diabetes, heart diseases, Cancer, liver damage, premature aging, early puberty etc.

Hence , this study focus on producing a better, heathier, and nutritious smoothies made from the seasonal fruits ( pineapple, banana, and apple)

1.2       Aim of the Study

The aim of this study is to determine the physico-chemical and micro nutrients composition of smoothie from pineapple, banana, and apple

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this work are:

  1. To produce smoothie from pineapple, banana, and apple.
  2. To determine the physicochemical properties of smoothie produced from pineapple, banana, and apple.
  3. To determine the micro nutrients composition of the smoothie produced from pineapple, banana, and apple.
  4. To conduct the sensory properties and general acceptability of the smoothie produced from pineapple, banana, and apple.

1.4       Justification of the Study

According to Keenan, D.F. (2010), the need to increase the utilization of fruits and vegetables in beverage production have been on increases demand due to their role in solving nutritional problems through exploitation of nutritional and economic potential of fruits and vegetables.

El-Abasy (2014) has successfully produced juice from blends of banana and apple fruits at the ratio of 90 to 10% respectively. However, there has not been optimized work on mixing another fruit juice sample in the juice blends. Thus, this present work is designed to address the missing gaps of the previous researchers.

Hence, this study focuses on creating awareness to people to increase their intake of natural fruits instead of carbonated drinks.

1.5       Significance of the Study

Consumer’s demands for healthy and nutritious food product with a fresh-like appearance have undergone a continuous rise during the years. The importance of fruit and vegetables in human nutrition is clearly evident. US Food and Drug Administration (2020) reveal that fruits and vegetables juice play a significant role in human nutrition, especially as sources of Vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. Presently, a variety of fruit juice blends has been produced to form a product with improved nutritional and sensory quality. A continuous consumption of these fruit-based products is highly associated with the reduced risk of chronic and degenerative diseases. In this sense, scientists and technologists have been focused on the development of mixture methodology for quality evaluation of mixed fruit juices ready to serve beverages (US Food and Drug Administration, 2020). The consumption of mixed fruit based beverages has significantly increased in the last years, becoming one of the food industry sectors with the highest growth worldwide.

1.6                                             RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In the course of carrying this study, numerous sources were used which most of them are by visiting libraries, consulting journal and news papers and online research which Google was the major source that was used.

1.7                                     PROJECT ORGANISATION

The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work,   chapter two presents the literature review of the study,  chapter three describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.



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