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design and implementation of solar powered gas detection system

The main aim of this work is to a solar powered gas detecting device that detects the presence of gases in an area, often as part of a safety system using MQ-2 sensor

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Description

ABSTRACT

Aim: This work is on a solar powered gas detection system. The main aim of this work is to build a device that will detect the presence of gases in an area, often as part of a safety system using solar energy as the source of power supply.

Method: The device was first built on a breadboard which is later transfer to vero board and soldered.

Result: The device was completely build and coupled, the result during the test shows that the gas detector was able to respond to its operation when gas was brought close to it.

Conclusion and Recommendation: At the end of this project a solar powered gas detector was built. This device can sound an alarm to operators in the area where the leak is occurring, giving them the opportunity to leave. This type of device is important because there are many gases that can be harmful to organic life, such as humans or animals. This device identifies potentially hazardous gas leaks by sensor.

Cover page

  1. Certification

iii. Dedication

  1. Acknowledgement
  2. Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the Study

1.2      Problem Statement

1.3      Hypothesis /Research Questions

1.4      Objective of Study

1.5      Significance of Study

1.6      Scope of Study

1.7      Limitations of Study

1.8      Definitions of terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Review of Related works

2.2 Contribution to Knowledge

2.3 Proposed system’s Theories

2.4 Historical background of solar panel

2.5 Overview of solar energy

2.6 Theoretical review of solar cell

2.7 Review of solar cell efficiency

2.8 Review of solar cell materials

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN METHODOLOGY

3.1 Block diagram

3.2 Circuit diagram of a solar powered LPG gas leakage detector

3.3 Components Required

3.4 Tools Required

3.5 System description

  1. Working Principle

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS/ANALYSIS

4.1 Result and discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY,CONCLUSION AND RECONMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1: Background of the Study

LPG was first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling as a mixture of Propane and Butane having saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons. Because of the flexible nature of LPG, it is used for many needs such as domestic fuel, industrial fuel, automobile fuel, heating, illumination etc. and the demand for LPG is increased day by day. The leaked gases when ignited may lead to causality. The number of causality due to the explosion of gas cylinders has been increasing in recent years. Thus, there is a requirement of a system that can detect and also prevent leakage of LPG. Early before 1980s and 1990s the development of electronics gas detectors, the presence of LPG gas was detected with chemically infused paper that changed its color when exposed to the gas. Since then, many technologies and devices had been developed to detect, monitor, and alert the leakage.

A gas detector is a device that detects the presence of gases in an area, often as part of a safety system. This type of equipment is used to detect a gas leak or other emissions and can interface with a control system so a process can be automatically shut down. A gas detector can sound an alarm to operators in the area where the leak is occurring, giving them the opportunity to leave. This device is important because there are many gases that can be harmful to organic life, such as humans or animals.

Gas detectors can be used to detect combustible, flammable and toxic gases, and oxygen depletion. This type of device is used widely in industry and can be found in locations, such as on oil rigs, to monitor manufacture processes and emerging technologies such as photovoltaic. They may be used in firefighting.

Traditional gas detector is powered with conventional power supply which makes it less efficient. Here we intend to propose a solar powered based gas sensor, where solar energy is use a sustainable means of powering the device and  MQ-2 is used to detect dangerous gas leaks. This unit is incorporated into an alarm unit, to sound an alarm indication of the LPG leakage. The sensor has good sensitivity combined with a quick response time at low price.

1.2      Problem Statement

Gas leakage leads to various causality resulting into both financial loss as well as human life. In human’s daily life, environment plays a vital role in health issues. The risk of fires, suffocation, explosion all are based on their physical properties such flammability, toxicity etc. The number of deaths figures due to explosion of gas cylinders has been increasing in recent years. The main reason for such explosion is due to sub- standard cylinders, worn out regulators, old valves and lack of awareness using gas cylinders add to risks. The conventional gas detector was built in the past which has the challenge of power supply – which goes off as soon as power supply fails. In other to overcome this problem a renewable energy source was interfaced with the gas detector – which lead to having constant power supply to the system.

1.3      Hypothesis/Research Questions

          Research Hypotheses

H1: There is a significant association between fire accident, gas detector and solar energy.

Research Questions

  1. What is the importance of gas detector in a building?
  2. Is there any disadvantage of using gas detector with solar energy?
  • What is the operating principle of a gas detector?

1.4      Aim and Objectives of Study

The main aim of this work is to a solar powered gas detecting device that detects the presence of gases in an area, often as part of a safety system using MQ-2 sensor. Gas detectors can be used to detect combustible, flammable and toxic gases, and oxygen depletion. The objectives are:

  1. To build the system prototype
  2. To increase home security
  • To interface MQ-2 Gas sensor with solar energy.

1.4      Significance of Study

Gas detectors can be used to detect combustible, flammable and toxic gases, and oxygen depletion. This type of device is used widely in industry and can be found in locations, such as on oil rigs, to monitor manufacture processes and emerging technologies such as photovoltaic. They may be used in firefighting. This study will help the student involved and all the reader of the work to understand how to employ gas detector to prevent toxic exposure and fire and how it can be interfaced with renewable energy.

1.5: Scope of Study

The scope of this work covers Gas leak detection which is the process of identifying potentially hazardous gas leaks by MQ-2 sensor which is powered using renewable energy source (solar energy). This sensor usually employs an audible alarm to alert people when a leakage gas has been detected. Gas Sensor (MQ-2) module is useful for gas leakage detection (in home and industry). Due to its high sensitivity and fast response time, measurements can be taken as soon as possible. The sensitivity of the sensor can be adjusted by using the potentiometer. All of this sensor is used for a wide range of applications and can be found in industrial plants, refineries, waste-water treatment facilities, vehicles, and homes.

  • Limitations of Study
  1. To supply a steady power supply to the system using renewable energy is cost effective more than the conventional gas detector.
  2. The Sensor requires quarterly calibration and do not have a long life.

1.7: Definitions of terms

Gas: colorless highly flammable gaseous hydrocarbon consisting primarily of methane and ethane.

Detector: a device or instrument designed to detect the presence of a particular object or substance.

Sensor:  a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment.

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