Design And Construction Of An Under And Over Voltage Protection System Using Comparators

The power line fluctuations and cut-offs causes damages to electrical appliances connected to the line. It is more serious in the case of domestic appliances like fridge and air conditioners.

Original price was: ₦ 3,000.00.Current price is: ₦ 2,999.00.



The power line fluctuations and cut-offs causes damages to electrical appliances connected to the line. It is more serious in the case of domestic appliances like fridge and air conditioners. If a fridge is operated on low voltage, excessive current flows through the motor, which heats up, and get damaged. High and low voltage cut off is a device designed to protect electrical appliances from over voltage as well as under voltage.


Title Page

Approval Page




Table of Content


1.0      Introduction

1.1      background of the project

1.2      problem statement

1.3      objective of the project

1.4      purpose of the project

1.5      significance of the project

1.6      applications of the project

1.7      advantages of the project

1.8      Scope of the project

1.9      methodology

1.10   project organisation


2.0      literature review

2.1      review of voltage regulation

2.2      overvoltage to homes appliances


3.0      Construction/ Methodology

3.2      block diagram of the project

3.3      circuit diagram of the project

3.4      system operation

3.5      circuit description

3.6      Description of major components used


4.0      Result analysis

4.1      installation of the complete design

4.2      construction procedure and testing

4.3      casing and packaging

4.4      assembling of section

4.5      testing of system operation

4.6      problems encountered

4.7      cost analysis


5.1      Conclusion

5.2      Recommendation

5.3      Bibliography



1.1                                         BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

High and low voltage cut off is a device designed to protect electrical appliances from over voltage as well as under voltage. The under/over voltage protection circuit with presented in this work is a low cost and reliable circuit for protecting such equipments from damages. Whenever the power line is switched on it gets connected to the appliance only after a delay of a fixed time. If there is hi/low fluctuations beyond sets limits the appliance get disconnected.

This voltage protection circuit is designed to develop a low-voltage and high-voltage tripping mechanism to protect a load from any damage. In many of the homes and industries fluctuations in AC mains supply take place frequently. The electronic devices get easily damaged due to fluctuations. To overcome this problem, we can implement a tripping mechanism of under / overvoltage protection circuit to protect the loads from the undue damage.

This work provides few circuit ideas that can provide low voltage and over voltage protection to connected electrical assets. Though these circuits won’t be able to stabilize the input voltage, even so may prove very effective in providing total safety to your precious electrical home appliances against dangerous input voltages.

The first design of a low voltage indicator circuit may be used to indicate the presence of dangerous low voltage conditions.

A low voltage may appear to be something that is lower in magnitude and power, but that is what makes it more lethal. For example a refrigerator working at 230 volts AC mains will never “like” voltages below 190, since in such cases its compressor due to the lack of sufficient voltage, will try to compensate by drawing heavy currents and may get damaged if the situation persists. The same is true for other types of AC operated motors.

Also in vehicles, for example a car, if the battery voltage falls below 9 volts, it may be quite harmful for the life of the battery itself and moreover the vehicle will just not start at that voltage.

1.2                                                  PROBLEM STATEMENT

In the era of development, advancement and pace we attained efficiency, mobility, flexibility and comfort but we need safe guard as well as. We, as students of electrical side has thus got motivation to design such a system that ensures protection of different electrical junctions and aware us even if we are distant from devices in uncustomary fashion.

The gradual developing rate of accidents because of electrical overflow is alarming for Nigerian. This project physically gives us little hope to advance a bit for protection of devices and electrical systems.

1.3                                          OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The objective of this work is:

  • Provide a solution to under voltage and over situation faced by residents of high density areas of Nigeria by designing and constructing an effective and comparatively cheaper voltage stabilizer which will have a cost price of less than total cost obtained which could be afforded by most low income earners.
  • To regulate the voltage of there is any over voltage or under voltage an regulate the voltage that will suit the purpose the analysis design, construction and cost comparison have been done and necessary tests have been satisfactory out.

1.4                                        SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

As a student of electrical and electronic engineering, working on this project have expose my knowledge to function and working principle of many electrics components such as voltage comparator, transistor, and mainly to auto-transformer.

It has made me to understand the working principle and application of s of over and under voltage cutout if for both in homes and industries.

1.5                                           PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT

The main purpose of this work is to ensure adequate protection for home appliances against dangerous voltage which can cause damage to them.

16                                       APPLICATIONS OF THE PROJECT

Over or under voltages in electricity is one of the major problems that affect their production. Due to high demand of electricity to sustain their operations, it results to low or high voltage output which can damage equipments. Therefore, these companies need specialized devices to help them protect their equipments from early wear and tear. High-And-Low Voltage Cut-Out is an electromechanical constituents that control the regular voltage outputs. During peak consumption of electricity, the sudden flow of power can damage electric or electronic machines. On the other hand, if there is low output of voltage, a machine may fail to function. It provide safe output to guard varieties of equipments including ultra modernized music systems, medical equipments LCD, Home Theater, industrial machines and more. They are designed with special features to protect equipments which include line noise spike protection, primary switching technology, auto reset, and overload cutoff protection. In order to preserve the life of machines, these devices are recommendable in any operation. They assure that machines are working well all the time especially in peak timings.

1.7                                          ADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECT

  1. Cost is less as compared to voltage stabilizers
  2. Consumes less power.
  3. This circuit is used in homes and offices to protect equipments from high voltages and low voltages.

1.8                                                 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

This straight forward circuit will protect electrical appliances from over voltage as well as under voltage. An ideal circuit for home to protect your valuable equipments from voltage fluctuations. The same circuit with some modifications can be used  to make a automatic voltage stabilizer.

This device was built around an op-amp precisely LM 324. The inclusion of op amps makes the circuit operations much accurate and tripping points adjustable to any levels as desired by the user. The upper op amp has its non inverting input rigged to a preset and is terminated to the supply DC voltage, pin #5 here is provided with a reference level, so that as soon as the potential at pin #6 goes above the set threshold (by P1), the output of the op amp goes high.

1.9                                         METHODOLOGY

To achieve the aim and objectives of this work, the following are the steps involved:

  1. Study of the previous work on the project so as to improve it efficiency.
  2. Draw a block diagram.
  • Test for continuity of components and devices,
  1. Design and calculation for the device was carried out.
  2. Studying of various component used in circuit.
  3. Construction of the circuit was carried out.
  • Finally, the whole device was cased and final test was carried out.

1.10                                      PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION

The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:

Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to low and high voltage cut out. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of low and high voltage cut out were discussed.

Chapter two is on literature review of low and high voltage cut out. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.

Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.

Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.

Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.






There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Design And Construction Of An Under And Over Voltage Protection System Using Comparators”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *