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design and construction of an iot based health monitoring system

The project aims at curbing the power losses in the street lamps during the night time by building a smart street light using aurduino microcontroller, ultrasonic sensor, LRD and solar energy.

 2,999.00

Description

ABSTRACT

Generally, street lights are switched ON for whole night and during the day, they are switched off. But during the night time, street lights are not necessary if there is no traffic. Saving of this energy is very important factor these days as energy resources are getting reduced day by day. Alternatives for natural resources are very less and our next generations may face lot of problems because of lack of these natural resources. Smart street lighting system works automatically to regulate light intensity and detect objects.

The operation of the device is based on: at the middle of night when no one walks on street or in the evening the street light will be dim thereby saving energy, and in thick darkness and when an object is detected all the bulbs will come ON (bright) thereby illuminating the street in its full brightness.

In this system, arduino is the heart of the system, light depend resistor (LDR) regulates the intensity of the light, whilst the ultrasonic sensor detects object then lighten up the street light and a solar panel/battery is for making the entire idea functional.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
  • PROBLEM STATEMENT
  • AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
  • APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1      REVIEW OF STREET LIGHTING SYSTEM

2.2      REVIEW OF THE RELATED WORK

2.3      PROPOSED SYSTEM

2.4      DESCRIPTION OF LED LIGHT

2.5      ADVANTAGES OF LED LIGHTS

2.6         DISADVANTAGES OF LED LIGHTS

CHAPTER THREE

3.0      CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY

3.1      SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM

3.2      CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

3.3      SYSTEM WORKING

3.4      CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

3.4      SYSTEM OPERATION

3.5      COMPONENTS LIST

3.6    PROGRAM CODE

3.7    SOLAR POWER UNIT

3.8    DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS USED

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       RESULT ANALYSIS

4.1      CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING

4.2      ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS

4.3      CONSRUCTION OF THE CASING

4.4     TESTING

4.5     HOW TO TEST THE DEVICE

4.6     RESULT

CHAPTER FIVE

  • CONCLUSIONS

5.2     REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1                                           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A street lighting is any electrical lighting that is fixed outside house for the illumination of such environment or a Street light is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or walkway according to Wang et al (2016).

The idea behind the design of this system is to make available the require illumination in our roads for nighttime events, security, and beautification. This goes a long way in helping to curb the problem frequently encountered as a result of darkness during nighttime such as thieves, arm robbers operations or wide animals approaching our homes during night hours (Wang et al., 2016).

Smart street lighting system works automatically to regulate light intensity, and detect objects. This system is designed to integrate the microcontroller arduino with ultrasonic sensors and light dependent resistors (LDR).

Ultrasonic sensors are based on measuring the properties of sound waves with frequency above the human audible range. They are based on three physical principles: time of flight, the Doppler effect, and the attenuation of sound waves. Ultrasonic sensors are non-intrusive in that they do not require physical contact with their target, and can detect certain clear or shiny targets otherwise obscured to some vision-based sensors. On the other hand, their measurements are very sensitive to temperature and to the angle of the target.

Ultrasonic sensors “are based on the measurement of the properties of acoustic waves with frequencies above the human audible range,” often at roughly 40 kHz. They typically operate by generating a high-frequency pulse of sound, and then receiving and evaluating the properties of the echo pulse.

The light dependent resistor measures the intensity of light. During day time when there is no essence of street light so the LDR keeps the street light off. As soon as the light intensity is low then the LDR is started working and the light is switched on.

The proposed device is based on building a smart street light that at the middle of night when no one walks on street or in the evening the street light will be dim thereby saving energy, and in thick darkness and when an object is detected all the bulbs will come ON (bright) thereby illuminating the street in its full brightness. The overall system is powered using solar energy.

1.2                                                  PROBLEM STATEMENT

The existing street lighting control system used timer and photocell. The timer is set up to turn on the street light within 7.00 p.m. until 7.00 a.m. Meanwhile, photocell reacts based on the presence of light or electromagnetic energy. In a rainy day or when the light intensity is low, the photocell will energize the contact and automatically turn on the street lights. This system is quite inefficient since the condition of day and night is uncertain. Sometimes at 7.00 p.m. the day is still bright but the street light is already switched on. In contrast, at 7.00 a.m. the street light is already switched off although the day is still dark. Thus, this system is quite inflexible. In order to surge the efficiency, a modern street lighting control system must be able to adapt the light level intensity and to detect an object late in the night before the system will switch ON in order to determine the optimum energy consumption level. However, power wastage will happen if there is no user or vehicles use that road especially in rural areas at midnight. This device was built to solve this problem by providing full (when an object is detected) and dim output when no output was detected. And it also has the capacity of switching ON automatically during sunset and OFF during sunrise.

1.3                                  AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

The project aims at curbing the power losses in the street lamps during the night time by building a smart street light using aurduino microcontroller, ultrasonic sensor, LRD and solar energy. The objectives of the study are:

  1. To build a street light that is efficient and cost effective
  2. To save energy
  • To reduce human labour

1.4                                               SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

Working on this topic serves as a means of preventing accidents and increase safety. Studies have shown that darkness results in a large number of crashes and fatalities, especially those involving pedestrians; pedestrian fatalities are 3 to 6.75 times more likely in the dark than in daylight. Street lighting has been found to reduce pedestrian crashes by approximately 50%.

Furthermore, lighted intersections and highway interchanges tend to have fewer crashes than unlighted intersections and interchanges.

Towns, cities, and villages use the unique locations provided by lampposts to hang decorative or commemorative banners.

This study will serve as a means of making student becoming familiar with solar energy, arduino and ultrasonic sensor. In design of street light for industrial applications, ultrasonic sensors are characterized by their reliability and outstanding versatility. Ultrasonic sensors can be used to solve even the most complex tasks involving object detection or design and construction of an iot based health monitoring system because their measuring method works reliably under almost all conditions.

This study provides a means of saving energy in street lighting system. As the lamps are automatically turn ON or OFF, huge amount of energy can be saved.

1.5                                 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of this work covers the building of a smart street light using arduino, LDR, ultrasonic sensor and solar energy (solar panel). arduino is the heart of the system, light depend resistor (LDR) regulates the intensity of the light, whilst the ultrasonic sensor detects object then lighten up the street light and a solar panel/battery is for making the entire idea functional.

1.6                                          APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT

There are four distinct main uses of street lights, each requiring different types of lights and placement. Misuse of the different types of lights can make the situation worse by compromising visibility or safety (Tan et al., 2015).

Beacon lights

A modest steady light at the intersection of two roads is an aid to navigation because it helps a driver see the location of a side road as they come closer to it and they can adjust their braking and know exactly where to turn if they intend to leave the main road or see vehicles or pedestrians. A beacon light’s function is to say “here I am” and even a dim light provides enough contrast against the dark night to serve the purpose. To prevent the dangers caused by a car driving through a pool of light, a beacon light must never shine onto the main road, and not brightly onto the side road (Tan et al., 2015). In residential areas, this is usually the only appropriate lighting, and it has the bonus side effect of providing spill lighting onto any sidewalk there for the benefit of pedestrians. On Interstate highways this purpose is commonly served by placing reflectors at the sides of the road.

Roadway lights

Conventional streetlights are used instead of high mast lighting near airport runway approaches due to the negative effects they cause.

Street light are not normally intended to illuminate the driving route (headlights are preferred), but to reveal signs and hazards outside of the headlights’ beam. Because of the dangers discussed above, roadway lights are properly used sparingly and only when a particular situation justifies increasing the risk. This usually involves an intersection with several turning movements and much signage, situations where drivers must take in much information quickly that is not in the headlights’ beam. In these situations (A freeway junction or exit ramp) the intersection may be lit so that drivers can quickly see all hazards, and a well designed plan will have gradually increasing lighting for approximately a quarter of a minute before the intersection and gradually decreasing lighting after it. The main stretches of highways remain unlighted to preserve the driver’s night vision and increase the visibility of oncoming headlights. If there is a sharp curve where headlights will not illuminate the road, a light on the outside of the curve is often justified (Tan et al., 2015).

If it is desired to light a roadway (perhaps due to heavy and fast multi-lane traffic), to avoid the dangers of casual placement of street lights it should not be lit intermittently, as this requires repeated eye readjustment which implies eyestrain and temporary blindness when entering and leaving light pools. In this case the system is designed to eliminate the need for headlights. This is usually achieved with bright lights placed on high poles at close regular intervals so that there is consistent light along the route. The lighting goes from curb to curb.

Image-based street light control

A number of companies are now manufacturing Intelligent street lighting that adjust light output based on usage and occupancy, i.e. automating classification of pedestrian versus cyclist, versus automotive, sensing also velocity of movement and illuminating a certain number of streetlights ahead and fewer behind, depending on velocity of movement. Also the lights adjust depending on road conditions, for example, snow produces more reflectance therefore reduced light is required (Tan et al., 2015).

Military use

From a military standpoint, lighting is a critical part of the battlefield conditions. Shadows are good places to hide, while bright areas are more exposed. It is often beneficial to fight with the Sun or other light source behind you, giving your enemy disturbing visual glare and partially hiding your own movements in backlight. If natural light is not present searchlights and flares can be used. However the use of light may disclose your own hidden position and modern warfare have seen increased use of night vision through the use of infrared cameras and image intensifiers.

Flares can also be used by the military to mark positions, usually for targeting, but laser-guided and GPS weapons have eliminated this need for the most part.

  • The street light control circuit can be used in normal roads, highways, express ways etc.
  • The project can also be used in parking areas of malls, hotels, industrial lighting.

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