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design and construction of a heat detector

This work is a complete and well researched project material on “design and construction of a heat detector” which is strictly for academic purposes, which has been approved by different Lecturers/supervisors from different higher institutions. This project topic have complete 5(five) Chapters. The complete Project Material/write-up include: Abstract + Introduction + etc + Literature Review + methodology + result analysis + Conclusion + Recommendation + References/Bibliography. We made chapter one available for all viewers, the complete material attracts a token. Happy viewing!!!

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Description

ABSTRACT

This project is titled design and construction of a heat detector. Heat detector is a fire alarm device that is stored in a building to detect the presence of fire accident heat – rise in temperature. Heat detector system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion heat. In general, a heat detector system is classified as either automatically actuated, manually actuated, or both. Heat detector alarm systems are intended to notify the building occupants to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency, report the event to an off-premises location in order to summon emergency services, and to prepare the structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire. The aim of this project is to design and construct a heat detector for a building that will detect the presence of fire accident in a building through rise in temperature of the environment.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE

TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

  • PROBLEM STATEMENT
  • AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
  • BENEFIT OF THE PROJECT
  • APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
  • HYPOTHESIS/RESEARCH QUESTION
  • PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
  • METHODOLOGY
  • LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
  • PROJECT ORGANISATION

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
  • TYPES OF FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
  • REVIEW OF FIRE ALARM DESIGN
  • REVIEW OF RELATED WORKS
  • CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     METHODOLOGY

3.1      MATERIAL PARTS LIST

3.2      SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM

3.3      WIRING DIAGRAM

3.4      SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

3.5      SYSTEM OPERATING SYSTEM

3.6      HEAT SENSOR DESCRIPTION

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0      RESULTS/ANALYSIS

  • TESTING OF HARDWARE
  • HARDWARE RESULT/ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • SUMMARY
  • CONCLUSION
  • RECOMMENDATION
  • REFERENCES

 

                                                              CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                      INTRODUCTION

1.1                                           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In modern society, it is impossible to imagine house or building without a fire accident detector. Modern houses require a continuous installation of heat detector. Not only industry, but also in the household. Take the case of a duplex that experience a fire accident without a heat detector that means everything in that building will get burnt even human beings. But in a case whereby fire alarm is installed that means everyone in that building will be alerted and also fire security bodies will also be informed for quick security action. The same thing can also happen to our offices and industries. In order to notify residence of any building in the presence of fire accident, a heat detector system is used.

A fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion through heat. In this work, when ambient temperatures reach a fixed point, typically indicating a fire, fixed-temperature heat detectors are a highly cost-effective solution for many property protection applications. If rapid response to fire is vital, rate-of-rise heat detectors are an ideal solution where rapid temperature increases would only be caused by a fire emergency. Combination heat detectors provide both fixed and rate-of-rise detection. This enables the heat detector to communicate an alarm to the central control panel prior to reaching its fixed set point for high rates of rise, providing a timely response to both rapid and slow temperature increases.​

1.2                                               PROBLEM STATEMENT

The Nigerian environment is considered to be hazards prone brought about by man-made and natural disasters due to its geographic circumstance which is exposed to catastrophic, floods droughts and fires. Based on the reports; devastations of these natural hazards and disasters including fires have increased in recent years. Our lifestyle of negligence and adapting to emerging technological solutions puts us at the risk of loss to fire and related occurrences as seen in markets, homes and other public places. The risk of fire occurrence is high especially during the dry season, Christmas and New Year celebration due to firecrackers. In the case where house fires are prevalent, it has effect to derail the economic growth, destroy social and physical capital including infrastructures, which resort to reallocation of ongoing programs to finance relief operations to fatalities and inhabitants and reconstruction efforts which diverts funds to social services. Fires are considered natural and man-made hazards.  This technology aimed at putting an end to these problems by communicating an alarm to the central control panel prior to reaching its fixed set point for high rates of rise, providing a timely response to both rapid and slow temperature increases.​

1.3                                AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The objective of this work is to construct a device that will detect ambient temperatures reach a fixed point, typically indicating a fire.

The objectives of this work are:

  1. To evaluate the operation of fire alarm by monitoring environmental temperature
  2. To detect the presence of fire outbreak via alarm and provides a status indication to the users.
  • To protect live and property

1.4                                               BENEFIT OF THE PROJECT

The primary advantage of a home heat detector system is increased reliability and the ability to place alarms and bells exactly where needed. However, the reason most people have them is that they wanted a burglar alarm system and the cost of adding fire alarm features to a residential burglary system is relatively small.

Another advantage is that they are the only way to obtain remote monitoring services. This becomes important in cases where family members may not be capable of escaping from a fire without assistance. For example, if you have an older or physically impaired person in your home and a fire started when no one was home to assist that person, alarms alone might not be enough to assure their safety.

A feature of most monitoring services is the ability to keep special information on the residence which comes up on the computer screen whenever an alarm is received from that home. Thus, if there is a disabled person in the home who needs special assistance this fact will be known to the operator and can be passed along to the fire department when they are called.

1.5                                       APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT

Fire alarms are prime necessities in modern buildings and architectures, especially in homes, banks, data centers and gas stations.

1.6                                   HYPOTHESIS/RESEARCH QUESTION

Hypothesis

Hi: There is a significant relationship between heat and fire

Ho: There is no significant relationship between heat and fire

Research Question

  1. What is a heat detector used for?
  2. Is a heat detector the same as a smoke detector?
  • What is the working principle of heat detector system?

1.7                                           PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT

Fire is one of the most costly causes of damage and loss of life in a facility. Heat detector alarm system supervises the facility for heat in the installed environment. The purpose of this work is to design a device that does such function.

1.8                                       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

This study will help the reader to understand the importance of heat detector in a building and to know how heat detector can be used to protect lives and properties.

With this study, the reader shall be able to learn the application and operation of a temperature sensor used in the circuit.

1.9                                                        METHODOLOGY

To achieve the aim and objectives of this work, the following are the steps involved:

  1. Study of the previous work on the project so as to improve it efficiency.
  2. Draw a block diagram.
  • Test for continuity of components and devices,
  1. Design and calculation for the device was carried out.
  2. Studying of various component used in circuit.
  3. Construction of the circuit was carried out.
  • Finally, the whole device was cased and final test was carried out.
    • LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
  1. System components will not work without electrical power. If system batteries are not serviced or replaced regularly, they may not provide battery backup when AC power fails.
  2. In general, heat detector and devices will not work without power and will not function properly unless they are maintained and tested regularly.

1.11                                                      PROJECT ORGANISATION

The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work,   chapter two presents the literature review of the study,  chapter three describes the methods applied,  chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.

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