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Design And Construction Of A 6-12 Volts Automatic Battery Charger Using Scr

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Description

ABSTRACT

This project is on a 6-12 volts automatic battery charger using SCR. This automatic battery charger is designed to charge any acid battery whose emf is between 6-12v.  In this work, a voltage sensor circuit is incorporated to sense the voltage of the battery under charge. The charger has the ability to automatically switched OFF when the battery voltage reaches the required optimum level with the help of the zener diode when bend the current back to the system, and the system have the ability to indicate when the battery is charging or not, when the battery is empty or fully charged through LED.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWELDGEMENT

ABSTRCT

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
  • BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
  • AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
  • APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
  • LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
  • SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
  • PROJECT ORGANISATION

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1      HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF BATTERY CHARGER

2.2      REVIEW OF BATTERY CHARGER

2.3      REVIEW OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BATTERY CHARGERS

2.4      REVIEW OF SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER (SCR)

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0      CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY

3.1      BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM

3.2      CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

3.3      CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

3.4      SYSTEM OPERATION

3.5      DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS USED

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1            RESULT ANALYSIS

4.1      CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING

4.2      CASING AND PACKAGING

4.3      ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS

4.4      TESTING OF SYSTEM OPERATION

4.5     COST OF PRODUCTION

CHAPTER FIVE

  • CONCLUSIONS
  • RECOMMENDATION

5.3     REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1                                                     INTRODUCTION

Battery charger is device which consists of electrodes and electrolyte for the storage of chemical energy, but brings about a reaction between its electrodes and the electrolyte in a way to cause the flow of electrons through an external circuit is known as a battery.

There are two types of batteries; these include the primary and secondary battery. The primary (dry cell) is one whose electrolyte dries up when used to its ampere-hour rating and cannot be recharged while the secondary (wet cell) is one whose chemical energy can be restored through a charging process. There are different types of secondary battery. These comprise lead acid, Nickel-cadmium and silver zinc battery.

Furthermore, a battery is a combination of cells connected together and a cell is a simple source of electric potential. The maintenance of secondary battery is of importance partially where maximum performance and life are obtained. As long as a battery is in use, its stored chemical energy, which is being converted to electrical energy falls. This falls in chemical energy leads to a corresponding fall in its terminal voltage.

A constant potential method of charging is adopted in this project work. It is a phenomenon whereby the alternating voltage from the main is converted to direct voltage through rectification.

The direct current from the rectifier is then passed through the battery that is being charged in the reversed direction in which the battery supplies current to the external circuit. The charger is intended to charge batteries with terminal voltage up to 6volts. It incorporates a sensing technique to monitor when the battery has been charged to its rated terminal voltage so as to automatically cut off supply to the battery.

Hence, a battery charger which is of low cost, highly efficient and cheap to maintain is needed to restore its rated terminal voltage. The entire circuit is made up of five basic units and details of each unit are highlighted in the subsequent chapters.

 

1.2                                        OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

The objective of the project is to design a device that will recharge 12v lead acid battery when discharged using scr as the major charging components.

 

1.3                                      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

This device charges 6-12v acid batteries mainly, however, if the output voltages are adjusted can be used to charge battery of lower or higher voltages.

Apart from charging batteries, this device can also be used as a battery level monitor due to the battery level feature it contains.

 

1.4                                       APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT

Battery charger is used in the following devices for the purpose of recharging device batteries:

  1. It is used in inverter
  2. It is used in cellphone
  3. It is used in Solar energy system
  4. It is used in vehicles
  5. It is used in an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), etc.

 

1.5                                        LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

  1. The AC to DC conversion here uses only the rectifier and may contain AC ripples as there is no filter.
  2. The half wave rectifier makes the charging and discharging quite slow.
  3. This circuit cannot be used for batteries with higher Ampere-hour rating.
  4. The battery charging may take longer time.
  5. Is designed only for batteries whose emf or charging voltage is between 6-12v.

1.6                                              SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The AC main voltage is given to the step down transformer the voltage should be down to 20V approx. the step down voltage is given to the SCR for rectification and SCR rectifies AC main voltage. This rectified voltage is used to charge battery.

When the battery connecter to the charging circuit, the battery will not be dead completely and it will get discharged this will give the forward bias voltage to the transistor through the diode and resistor which will get turned on. When the transistor is turned on the SCR will get off.

When the battery voltage is dropped the forward bias will be decreased and transistor gets turned off. When the transistor is turned off automatically the diode and resistor will get the current to the gate of the SCR, this will triggers the SCR and gets conduct. SCR will rectifies the AC input voltage and give to the battery through Resistor.

This will charge the battery when the voltage drop in the battery decreases the forward bias current also gets increased to the transistor when the battery is completely charged the Transistor will be again turned on and turned off the SCR.

 

1.7                            ADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATIC CHARGER

Features of this automatic battery charger made it more advantageous than other types and they are as below:

  • Automatic battery charger has an indicator to indicate when the battery is fully charged
  • It has a manually operated switch that is used to ON and OFF the entire system.
  • It consumed less current but generate high current to the load.

1.8                                        PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION

The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:

Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to an automatic voltage stabilizer. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of an automatic voltage stabilizer were discussed.

Chapter two is on literature review of an automatic voltage stabilizer. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.

Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.

Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.

Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references

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