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Design And Construction Of A 4-Way Traffic Light With Default Alert System

This work has been aimed at efficient means of controlling the traffic effectively for twenty-four hours. As the world is growing technologically more and more vehicles jump into the public road adding to the already existing number. Consequently, more efficient way of controlling the traffics becomes more desirable as compared to the obsolete way of using the traffic personnel’s.

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Description

ABSTRACT:

This work has been aimed at efficient means of controlling the traffic effectively for twenty-four hours. As the world is growing technologically more and more vehicles jump into the public road adding to the already existing number. Consequently, more efficient way of controlling the traffics becomes more desirable as compared to the obsolete way of using the traffic personnel’s.

Although many traffic laws are introduced, we still don’t see any fall in traffic rule violations or death caused by such negligence. The factors causing such failure can either be people or the system. So to solve this issue we propose in this paper a device using Arduino Uno that will monitor each vehicle individually with the help of sensors and modules, that it is attached on and will store data of traffic violation with the location and time. The device when in the range of receivers (attached to signals) on any junctions will send data to receiver devices. This data then will be uploaded to a centralized database using IOT without any human interaction.

TABLE OF CONTENT

COVER PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
  • OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
  • PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
  • PROJECT MOTIVATION
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
  • APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
  • PROBLEM OF THE PROJECT

CHAPTER TWO

2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1      OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY

2.2      HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

2.3      REVIEW OF RELATED WORK

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.0      DEFAULT ALERT SYSTEM DESIGN

3.1      HARDWARE REQUIRED

3.2      SOFTWARE DESIGN

3.3      IMPLEMENTATION

3.4      FOUR-WAY TRAFFIC LIGHT SECTION

3.5      POWER SUPPLY UNIT

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT ANALYSIS

  • CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE
  • CASING AND PACKAGING
  • ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS
  • PACKAGING
  • MOUNTING PROCEDURE
  • TESTING
  • RESULT ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION

5.3      REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.1                                                        INTRODUCTION

In the ever fast-growing world of business and technology today, there has become an increasing column of vehicles on every road in different place of the world. Traffic control light has become a very effective tool for sequential control of the teaming number of vehicles on the road to avert what would have been a recurrent saga of ghastly accidents at the junctions. There have been many ways of achieving this, uppermost among these being the employment of electronic monitoring circuits that which is controlled by presto clock.

In developed countries, the employment of traffic personnels who would be jumped up and down at the centres of the junction just for the motorists to acknowledge their rigorous signs has long come of age. In developing countries where 24 hours traffic flow is involved, many societies are adopting the usage of the traffic light control. The advantage offered by this method of traffic control cannot be over emphasized. For one, it offers a more advanced technology that is less prone to miscalculation and its regrettable occurrence. They stand out better at night, then offer illumination to the immediate surroundings which become important for security purpose and in general add to there entire aesthetic beauty of night life.

The technology behind the design may vary from place to place, but the fact remains that in all cases an electronic (logic) circuit is made to control a power circuit. The electronic logic circuit is normally composed of the basic digital components of electronic design which includes oscillators, timers, counters, decoders, microprocessors, etcetera, while the power circuit includes the lamps and the drivers circuits. The digital circuit is designed to give an output commensurate to the design choice. The power supply unit is designed to generate a steady supply voltage which is used to power the logic circuit.

The output consists of a series of lamps which are expected to light in a particular sequence depending on the design. By the microcontroller design, the lamps are made to come up in a particular sequence depending on the design with each colour meaning different motional status of the vehicles in that column.

With increase in population we are facing an increase in traffic default problems such as moving when the traffic light is saying stop, over speeding, accidents, hit and run, and so on. With the current system in force, that is, traffic police the problem is still not curbed. There are hardly any action taken on masses that violate rules daily, most of which goes unnoticed due to negligence by either traffic police or by the people themselves. So we are proposing in this paper out device that will monitor each vehicle for its traffic light deault and store the data locally. But the problem now comes is that no one will voluntarily allow their vehicle to send the data simply by not enabling data service to send that stored data. So what I propose is to build this system over IOT, where the data stored in the local storage of the device will be passed to a receiver that will forward this data to a centralized database over the Internet. Each traffic signals will we equipped with a receiver that will receive data from each vehicle from a particular direction, i.e., the receiver will only collect data from the device that is waiting on that particular side of the road. These receivers are connected to internet and will pass the collected data to a centralized database.

1.2                                         BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an arrangement of interrelated computing gadgets, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or individuals that are given one kind of an identifiers and the capacity to exchange information over a system without requiring human-to-human or human-to-PC communication. IoT is a new concept that has evolved from the convergence of wireless technologies. Wireless communication is the transfer of information or signal between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. In IoT devices equipped with Wi-Fi allow the machine-to- machine communication.

Using this from of industrial machines to wearable or wireless devices, using built-in sensors to gather data and take action on that data across a network. The sensor and actuator can be setup in different place but they are working together over an internet network.

Using IoT technique a vehicle tracking system (VTS) can be built. A vehicle tracking system combines the use of automatic vehicle location of individual vehicles with software that collects these fleet data for a comprehensive picture of vehicle locations. Modern vehicle tracking systems commonly use GPS or GLONASS technology for locating the vehicle, but other types of automatic vehicle location technology can also be used. Vehicle information can be viewed on electronic maps via internet with specialized software. The history of vehicle tracking dates to the beginning of GPS technology in 1978. In the early years, the technology was not yet operational, due to an insufficient number of satellites orbiting the earth. On Jan. 17, 1994, after years of gradual growth, the final of the first 24 satellites was launched, and the GPS system was considered fully operational. Early GPS was designed primarily only for military but in 1996, President Bill Clinton determined that the system would be an asset to civilians as well as the military. This policy change made GPS technology available to the average individual, including fleet managers, who could see the benefit of using the technology to keep tabs on their vehicles. In the early days of fleet tracking, in order to properly track a fleet, each vehicle had to be enabled with a costly GPS device. The company was required to pay a typically high monthly fee to use the satellite tracking system. While helpful, these early systems were difficult to implement, costly to use and sometimes inconvenient for drivers and fleet management alike. Thus it took several years for the concept to catch on. In the earliest days, only large, wealthy fleets took advantage of the technology. The modern fleet tracking system provides the necessary data to fleet managers allowing them to run their operations more efficiently. Reports on driver behavior, vehicle performance and fuel use all make it easier for the fleet manager to cut costs and increase efficiencies. These systems go beyond simple reporting of each vehicle’s location, offering fleet managers a wealth of information about their vehicles and their drivers [1].

Major constituents of the GPS-based tracking are:

 

  • GPS tracking: The device fits into the vehicle and captures the GPS location information apart from other vehicle information at regular intervals to a central server. Other vehicle information can include fuel amount, engine temperature, altitude, reverse geocoding, door open/close, tire pressure, cut off fuel, turn off ignition, turn on headlight, turn on taillight, battery status, GSM area code/cell code decoded, number of GPS satellites in view, glass open/close, fuel amount, emergency button status, cumulative idling, computed odometer, engine RPM, throttle position, GPRS status and a lot more. Capability of these devices actually decide the final capability of the whole tracking system; most vehicle tracking systems, in addition to providing the vehicle’s location data, feature a wide range of communication ports that can be used to integrate other on board systems, allowing to check their status and control or automate their
  • GPS tracking server: The tracking server has three responsibilities: receiving data from the GPS tracking unit, securely storing it, and serving this information on demand to the
  • User interface: The UI determines how one will be able to access information, view vehicle data, and elicit important details from it [2].

In Bangladesh this VTS is available. There are some company like GP, ROBI provides Vehicle Tracking Service (VTS) which has some common features like tracking the vehicle using satellite GPS & GSM communication. But there is no system which can detect accident and also give the service of VTS. Here comes carsafe project which can detect speed of a car, location of a car, and if there is any accident occur it can communicate automatically to the nearest police station, hospital and owner to reduce instant loss or damage.

1.3                                             OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

Here the following objectives are set, in the view of above mentioned research background for the present work in four way traffic default system

  1. To design a vehicle traffic light defaulter monitoring and reporting system based on GPRS/GPS
  2. To implement a web service for the vehicle owner, nearest police station to receive notification about the traffic default occurrence and its

1.4                                              PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT

The main purpose of this work is to stop violation of traffic law which is the major cause of road accident.

1.5                                                  PROJECT MOTIVATION

There are some company provides vehicle tracking system (VTS). Every VTS do the same thing like speed check, track vehicle. Some VTS can detect an accident.  But there is no VTS that gives notification to the nearest hospital any accident occurs and police station if traffic default occurs. In Nigeria, where a person who faces an accident or traffic default get less facility in treatment there need a system that can communicate to the nearest hospital and police station. Statistics shows, there are more than 3,000 people die on Nigeria’s roads every year. The country has one of the highest rates in the world, with more than 85 deaths for every 10,000 registered motor vehicles. That’s around 50 times higher than the rate in most western countries. This is almost equal to the total foreign aid received in a fiscal year. The losses include direct and indirect expenses, such as medical costs, insurance loss, property damage, family income losses and traffic congestion [3].

1.5                                         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

Use of technologies like Internet of Things (IoT) can ease the process of data collection and analysis. The advantages of idea proposed by this paper are reduction in number of accidents, inconvenience during driving and to stop traffic violation.

1.6                                          APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT

This device is designed to be used by drivers in order to reduce the number of accident and traffic violation that happens on our traffic located junctions.

1.7                                              PROBLEM OF THE PROJECT

The only problem discovered in this technology which can also make majority of drivers not to use it is the cost. The cost of installing this device is higher than when installing other automobile devices.

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