Sale!

Design And Construction Of A 12v Rechargeable Lantern

 2,999.00

Description

ABSTRACT

Since the invention of electricity by Michael faraday, Man has been so used to electricity that he cannot do without it. The absence of electricity causes a lot of sadness in our daily lives. Due to this reason I decided to work on a by rechargeable lamp as my project.

Researchable lamp is a source of light that is generated from a D.C sources of supply this D.C sources is a battery that can also way be charged when it current and voltage ruse

It also serves as immanency sources of light mostly when there is failure from out public power supply (P.H.C.N). The project is to see how one can construct a source of high without really generating is from an A.C source.

This project is a 12v rechargeable battery to generate light which is very useful to man both at home and otherwise. It is a stem that is very portable and very effective mostly t might after which it has been charged.

This lantern operates on rechargeable batteries which can be charged, with the adaptors included, whether at home or while on the move by car. The 100 LED’s provide excellent levels of lighting and up to 20 hours operating time on full charger making it an ideal camping companion.

TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE
APPROVAL PAGE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
1.2     PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
1.5     LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
1.6     APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
1.7     ADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECT
1.8     SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
1.9      RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.10   PROJECT ORGANISATION

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW 
2.1     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
2.2     THEORIES AND MODEL RELEVANT TO THE DESIGN
2.3     SYSTEM COMPONENT DESCRIPTION

2.4     ADVANTAGES OF RECHARGEABLE LANTERN

2.5      BENEFITS OF ENERGY LIGHTBULBS IN RECHARGEABLE LANTERN

2.6      ADVANTAGES OF RECHARGEABLE LANTERN

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM BUILDING BLOCKS
3.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
3.4 OPERATION PRINCIPLE OF THE SYSTEM
3.4 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.5 COMPONENT LIST
3.6 COMPLETE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM

CHAPTER FOUR 
4.0 RESULT ANALYSIS
4.1 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING ANALYSIS
4.2 CASING AND PACKAGING
4.3 ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS
4.4 TESTING OF SYSTEM OPERATION
4.5 INSTALLATION OF THE COMPLETED DESIGN
CHAPTER FIVE 
5.1 COST ANALYSIS
5.2 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED
5.3 RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.4 REFERENCES

CHAPTER

1.1                                          INTRODUCTION

A 12v rechargeable lantern is a portable lighting device or mounted light fixture used to illuminate broad areas. Lanterns may also be used for signaling, as torches, or as general light sources outdoors. Low light level varieties are used for decoration. The term “lantern” is also used more generically to mean a light source, or the enclosure for a light source.

Rechargeable lights are very useful electrical gadgets and are quite popular, too. During a power failure these portable lights are able to instantly illuminate through battery backup and never allow us to stumble in the darkness. Although you will find a variety of them in different shapes and sizes in the market, but building your own emergency light at home can be a totally different experience. It will not only help you to create a quality design but also will acquaint you to the technical aspects of the unit. Besides, you also get an opportunity to customize the circuit as per your own needs.

1.2                                                  PROBLEM STATEMENT

In the last decade candle stick and kerosene or gas lantern were used as a source of light for mankind but the problem of using candle are numerous such as it cost effective, weighty, convenient and unsafe to environment and human health. Because of these disadvantages led to the invention of rechargeable lantern. Rechargeable lantern has the following advantages over candle stick, kerosene or gas lantern:

  1. Compared to a gas lantern, a rechargeable lantern is light as a feather. Gas lanterns are typically made of glass and have metal canisters that add weight that rechargeable lanterns are able to eliminate. The lighter the weight of the lantern the more versatile it can be, whether it be to light up the card table or take it for your bathroom break.
  2. With the variety of lanterns like liquid fuel, gas, or even candle, a rechargeable lantern is an alternative that offers ease of use. All you have to do it switch it on and light is available. This saves you from having to remember to bring other items on the trip like gas to fuel the lantern or matches to light the candle. If you happen to have kids joining you on a camping trip, spoiler alert: they will more than likely drop a gas lantern and break the glass. Skip to the good part and allow them to carry a rechargeable lantern without worry.
  3. Lanterns with flames always come with a small risk of causing a fire, but rechargeable lanterns don’t require a babysitter. By avoiding a kerosene powered lantern, you can eliminate potential fumes.
  4. Rechargeable lantern can be charged via AC plug, DC plug, dynamo crank function, or with solar panels.

 1.3                  AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

The main aim of this work is to build a 12v rechargeable lantern. The objectives of the study are:

  1. To build a rechargeable lighting gadget that can be recharge directly from ac mains
  2. To provide a means of lighting up an environment whenever there is power outage during the night.
  • To study the operating principle of a rechargeable lantern

1.4                          SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

This system charges when there is power supply, the energy is stored in a rechargeable battery which is to be used when there is power outage. The lasting of the stored energy depends on the capacity of the rechargeable battery.

1.5                            LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

The device is recharge directly to ac mains, and can easily get burnt when high voltage is experienced in the mains if it is not properly regulated.

1.6                           APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT

Rechargeable lantern is used in many places such as:

  • In school library, hall and labs
  • Churches
  • Workshop
  • Homes, etc

All for the purpose of illuminating of such environment. They highly choose because of its simplicity and safety, that is, it can be charged, hanged, and continues with your adventures into the night.

 

1.7                                    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this work covers of the construction of a rechargeable lantern using LED. It operates with 12v rechargeable battery and 100 LEDs that provide excellent levels of lighting up to 20 hours operating time on full charger making it an ideal camping companion.

1.8                                                 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H1: There is a significant relationship between rechargeable lantern and LEDs

Research Questions

  1. What is the importance of rechargeable lantern in a building?
  2. Is there any disadvantage of using rechargeable lantern?
  • What is the operating principle of a rechargeable lantern?

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0                                                    LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1                           HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF LANTERN

Lanterns are first spoken of by Theopompus, a Greek poet, and Empedocles of Agrigentum. Lanterns were used by the ancients in augury. The only known representation of an ancient Egyptian lantern probably is not much different from those spoken of by John the Evangelist in John 18:3 from the New Testament, where the party of men who went out of Jerusalem to apprehend Jesus in the garden of Gethsemane is described as being provided “with lanterns and torches.” Lanterns in ancient China were made of silk, paper, or animal skin with frames made of bamboo or wood. One of the earliest descriptions of paper lanterns is found in records from Khotan, which describe a “mounting lantern” made of white paper.

The simplest technology used is the candle lantern. Candles give only a faint light, and must be protected from wind to prevent flickering or complete extinguishment. A typical candle lantern is a metal box or cylinder with glass or mica side panels and an opening or ventilated cover on the top. A primitive form of candle lantern, made from white horn and wood and called a lanthorn, was first made in the time of the English king Alfred the Great (849–899).

Traditional and decorative lanterns

Decorative lanterns exist in a wide range of designs. Some hang from buildings, while others are placed on or just above the ground. Paper lanterns occur in societies around the world. Modern varieties often place an electric light in a decorative glass case.

The ancient Chinese sometimes captured fireflies in transparent or semi-transparent containers and used them as (short-term) lanterns. Raise the Red Lantern, a Chinese film, prominently features lanterns as a motif. Lanterns are used in many Chinese festivals. During the Ghost Festival, lotus shaped lanterns are set afloat in rivers and seas to symbolic guide the lost souls of forgotten ancestors to the afterlife. During the Lantern Festival, the displaying of many lanterns is still a common sight on the 15th day of the first lunar month throughout China. In Chinese festivities, the kongming lanterns can be seen floating high into the sky during festivities.

Use of fireflies in transparent containers was also a widespread practice in ancient India. But since these were short term solutions, the use of fire torches was more prevalent.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church lanterns are used in religious processions and liturgical entrances, usually coming before the processional cross.

Lanterns are also used to transport the Holy Fire from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on Great Saturday during Holy Week.

Modern fueled lanterns

All fueled lanterns are somewhat hazardous owing to the danger of handling flammable and toxic fuel, danger of fire or burns from the high temperatures involved, and potential dangers from carbon monoxide poisoning if used in an enclosed environment.

Simple wick lanterns remain available. They are cheap and durable, but provide little light and are unsuitable for reading. They require periodic trimming of the wick and regular cleaning of soot from the inside of the glass chimney.

Mantle lanterns use a woven ceramic impregnated gas mantle to accept and re-radiate heat as visible light from a flame. The mantle does not burn (but the cloth matrix carrying the ceramic must be “burned out” with a match prior to its first use). When heated by the operating flame the mantle glows incandescently. Such lanterns are very bright, and can easily be used as reading lights. The heat may be provided by a gas, by kerosene, or by a pressurized liquid such as “white gas,” which is essentially naphtha. For protection from the high temperatures produced and to stabilize the airflow, a cylindrical glass shield called the globe or chimney is placed around the mantle.

Manually pressurized lanterns using white gas (also marketed as Coleman fuel or “Camp Fuel”) are manufactured by the Coleman Company in one and two-mantle models. Some models are dual fuel and can also use gasoline. These are being supplanted by a battery-powered fluorescent lamp and LED models, which are safer in the hands of young people and inside tents. Battery-operated lanterns are produced by many manufacturers including Coleman. Liquid fuel lanterns remain popular where the fuel is easily obtained and in common use.

Many portable mantle-type fuel lanterns now use fuel gases that become liquid when compressed, such as propane, either alone or combined with butane. Such lamps usually use a small disposable steel container to provide the fuel. The ability to refuel without liquid fuel handling increases safety and additional fuel supplies for such lamps have an indefinite shelf life if the containers are protected from moisture (which can cause corrosion of the container) and excess heat.

Modern electric lanterns

Lighting fixtures

Lanterns designed as permanently mounted electric lighting fixtures are used in interior, landscape, and civic lighting applications. Styles can evoke former eras, unify street furniture themes, or enhance aesthetic considerations. They are manufactured for use with various wired voltage supplies.

Some rechargeable fluorescent lanterns may be plugged in at all times and may be set up to illuminate upon a power failure, a useful feature in some applications. During extensive power failures (or for remote use), supplemental recharging may be provided from an automobile’s 12-volt electrical system or from a modest solar-powered charger. Solar-powered lanterns have become popular in developing countries, where they provide a safer and cheaper alternative to kerosene lamps.

Battery powered lanterns

Various battery types are used in portable light sources. They are more convenient and produce less heat than combustion lights. At least the lower energy density types tend to be safer than fuel use.

Incandescent

Large flashlights of six volts and more have often been called lanterns, even though they produce a directional beam.

Fluorescent lights

The light emitting tubes of fluorescent lights are too big to easily be used to produce directional beam, but they are several times as efficient as incandescent filament bulbs and are useful for area illumination. They have partly replaced fuel lanterns for camping use, but are now being replaced by more compact and potentially even more efficient leds.

LEDs

Lanterns utilizing LEDs are becoming increasingly popular due to energy conservation, improvements in LED technology, and reduced production costs. Mounted lanterns can use LED lamps in the phase-out of incandescent light bulbs. LEDs have become brighter and more rugged. Battery-powered lanterns typically run longer (due to low current draw from the batteries) than incandescent bulbs do and sometimes than fluorescent tubes of comparable brightness. Flashlights can be used as lanterns by diffuse (non-specular) reflection, or by removing the focusing components.

2.2                                   REVIEW OF RECHARGEABLE BATTERY

A rechargeable battery, storage battery, or accumulator is a type of electrical battery. It comprises one or more electrochemical cells, and is a type of energy accumulator. It is known as a secondary cell because its electrochemical reactions are electrically reversible. Rechargeable batteries come in many different shapes and sizes, ranging from button cells to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network. Several different combinations of chemicals are commonly used, including: lead–acid, nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium ion polymer (Li-ion polymer).

Rechargeable batteries have lower total cost of use and environmental impact than disposable batteries. Some rechargeable battery types are available in the same sizes as disposable types. Rechargeable batteries have higher initial cost but can be recharged very cheaply and used many times.

Rechargeable batteries are used for automobile starters, portable consumer devices, light vehicles (such as motorized wheelchairs, golf carts, electric bicycles, and electric forklifts), tools, and uninterruptible power supplies. Emerging applications in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles are driving the technology to reduce cost and weight and increase lifetime.[1]

Traditional rechargeable batteries have to be charged before their first use; newer low self-discharge NiMH batteries hold their charge for many months, and are typically charged at the factory to about 70% of their rated capacity before shipping.

Grid energy storage applications use rechargeable batteries for load leveling, where they store electric energy for use during peak load periods, and for renewable energy uses, such as storing power generated from photovoltaic arrays during the day to be used at night. By charging batteries during periods of low demand and returning energy to the grid during periods of high electrical demand, load-leveling helps eliminate the need for expensive peaking power plants and helps amortize the cost of generators over more hours of operation.

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Design And Construction Of A 12v Rechargeable Lantern”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *