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Design And Construction A 2kva Arduino Based Automatic Voltage Regulator

This work is on a 2kva Automatic Voltage regulator. It is designed to meet up with the AC voltage safety, stability and accuracy demand in industries and in homes.

Original price was: ₦ 3,000.00.Current price is: ₦ 2,999.00.

Description

ABSTRACT

This work is on a 2kva Automatic Voltage regulator. It is designed to meet up with the AC voltage safety, stability and accuracy demand in industries and in homes. Voltage regulators are useful in devices such as computer Power supplies, alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage stabilizer control the output of the plant. This paper aims to design and implementation of single phase ac voltage regulator using arduino uno. A regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. This paper deals with the control techniques for load voltage regulation. The technique of tap-changing transformer switched by relay module. Arduino uno is used to control the switches to regulate the load voltage against supply voltage. This paper presents a single phase electronic voltage regulator based on unregulated primary side voltage is controlled by full-bridge rectifier. The controller, arduino uno is used to sense the output of full-bridge rectifier.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE

TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

1.2      PROBLEM STATEMENT

1.3      AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

1.4      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

1.5      SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

1.6      LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

1.7      ADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECT

1.8      APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT

1.9      DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

1.10   METHODOLOGY

1.11   PROJECT ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER TWO

2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW

  • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
  • STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLTAGE REGULATOR
  • REGULATOR GRADING
  • TYPES OF REGULATOR
  • REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES

CHAPTER THREE

3.0      CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY

  • BASIC OF THE SYSTEM
  • SYSTEM BASIC DIAGRAM
  • DESIGN PRINCIPLE
  • IMPLEENTATION SETUP COMPONENTS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0      RESULT ANALYSIS

  • CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE
  • CASING AND PACKAGING
  • ASSEMBLING SECTION
  • SYSTEM TESTING
  • DESIGN PRECAUTION

CHAPTER FIVE

  • DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1      DISCUSSION

  • CONCLUSION
  • RECOMMENDATION
  • REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                     INTRODUCTION

In Nigeria and some other parts of the world today, the electricity power supply to consumers (at homes and industries) are not maintained at a stipulated voltage say 240 volts.  But the electronics gadgets and some other power operated machines, that we use in our homes, offices and industries requires power with constant or nearly constant voltage for their efficiency, and to avoid damage by the voltage [Harper C, 1977].

Voltage regulator is an electronic control circuit or device that is capable of providing a constant or nearly constant output voltage even when there is variation in load or input voltage as low as 90 volt can be boast up to 240 volt by regulator at output stage without any voltage fluctuation [Harper C, 1977].

  • BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

There are many fundamental different types of regulator in use some of which are electron mechanically tap changer, solid state tap changer etc. voltage, stabilizer came into being not by normal design and plain, but as a means of solving electrical “Crisis” situation.  This crisis situation does rarely occur in developed countries of the world such as Britain, American, Germany.

 

Their system of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity is such that a devoid of variation of fluctuation in the supplied voltage.  Now, by the definition given by K.G Jackson and R. Feinberg, a voltage regulator is a piece device incorporated in a circuit to maintain a constant output voltage from a poorly generated power supply.  A voltage regulator like any other piece of equipment is a combination of many electrical and like any other piece of equipment is a combination of many electrical and electronic and circuit with the aim of getting the assemble to perform a specified desired task or function [Oakes, I 1997].

1.2                                              PROBLEM STATEMENT

The rate at which our appliances get burnt is higher most especially appliances without transformer such as our cell phone chargers and lanterns. And this problem is usually caused by either over voltage or under voltage. Due to this problems, a voltage regulator was designed which regulates under and over voltages to normal 220vac. An automatic voltage regulator regulates the AC voltage and keeps from lower or higher to normal. It protects any electronic device connected to it from getting damaged.

 

  • AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The main aim of this work is to build a device that will maintain a stable voltage level to provide a constant supply in spite of any fluctuations or changes in supply in order to protect the home appliances. The objectives are:

  1. To step up and step down the voltage when the supply is faulty.
  2. To prolong the life span of electrical appliances.
  • To protect our electrical appliances from damage
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

This work will throw light on how a voltage regulator is being constructed using arduino. It will also expose students involved on the benefit and application of a voltage regulator.  We are working on this machine because we have some idea on how this machine can be constructed and also on how it works.

1.5                                         THE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

As we have mentioned earlier, this device is a protective device that protects our electrical and electronic appliances out of current and voltage fluctuation. This is how it works.  When this system is plugged into the socket or supply, it will receive a minimum voltage of 100v and filter the current and voltage thereby brings out suitable voltage output to be used by the devices in it [Jackson, K.G, 1981].

So, we are building or constructing this device to reduce risk and damages the fluctuation of current / voltage caused by power fluctuations.

1.6                                        LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

As we all know that no human effort to achieve a set of goals goes without difficulties, certain constraints were encountered in the course of carrying out this project and they are as follows:-

  1. Difficulty in information collection: I found it too difficult in laying hands of useful information regarding this work and this course me to visit different libraries and internet for solution.
  2. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).
  • Time Constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.6                                               PURPOSE OF THEPROJECT

The main purpose of this study is to maintain constant voltage and power line conditioning to the equipment load under a wide variety of conditions, even when the utility input voltage, frequency or system load vary widely using arduino microcontroller.

1.7                                      ADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECT

An automatic voltage regulator does the following functions:

  1. It controls the voltage of the system and has the operation of the machine nearer to the steady state stability.
  2. It divides the reactive load between the alternators operating in parallel.
  3. The automatic voltage regulators reduce the over-voltages which occur because of the sudden loss of load on the system.
  4. It increases the excitation of the system under fault conditions so that the maximum synchronizing power exists at the time of clearance of the fault.

When there is a sudden change in load in the alternator, there should be a change in the excitation system to provide the same voltage under the new load condition. This can be done by the help of the automatic voltage regulator. The automatic voltage regulator equipment operates in the exciter field and changes the exciter output voltage, and the field current. During the violent fluctuation, the ARV does not give a quick response.

1.8                                         APPLICATIONS OF THE PROJECT

  • Voltage regulator is used to automatically adjust the output voltage of the power supply circuit or power supply equipment
  • It can be widely used in places require stable power supply voltage, such as industrial and mining enterprise, oil, railways, construction sites, schools, hospitals, telecommunications, hospitals, research and other department as of computer, precision machine tools, computer tomography(CT),precision instruments, test equipment, elevator lighting, imported equipment and production lines and more.

1.9                                                     DEFINITION TERMS

HV: High Voltage. Any electricity supply in excess of 650volts. Primarily used for the transmission of electricity over long distances.

Kva: Kilo volt amps. A measurement of the electrical ‘pressure’ and ‘quantity’ to a building.

Loads:  The equipment that is using the electricity supplied to a building.

Long power cut: Failure of the mains power external to your building, in excess of 30 minutes to 24 hours.

LV:  Low Voltage. Electricity supply from 110volts to 650 volts.

Power cut: A failure of the mains electricity by factors outside of your premises.

Prime rating: the rating given to a generator when it is used in lieu of mains power at a varying load. There is normally an overload allowed at this rating of 10% above the prime rating for 1 hour in 12.

Single phase power: The electricity produced from one phase of a three phase winding or from a dedicated singles phase winding.

Standby power: Maximum power a generator will give normally restricted to 1 hour in 12 for standby purposes only.

Winding: The copper wire that produces electricity when it passes through a magnetic field.

Watts: The total energy supplied by a circuit.

Surge: Overvoltage supply of electricity causing damage in sensitive equipment (opposite of Brown out).

Surge Suppression: Electronic equipment designed to restrain surges such as lightning strikes.

AVRs. Automatic voltage regulators. The electronic device which controls the output voltage of an alternator.

Base load rating. The rating given to a generator when it is used for continuous supply of electricity at a given load 24/7.

Black out. A national or wide area power failure, causing major disruption. For example.

Brown out. A drop in the mains voltage (not a total failure) that can cause degradation of lighting and electronic equipment.

1.10                                                  METHODOLOGY

In building this project, to achieve the aim and objectives of this work, the following are the steps involved:

  1. Study of the previous work on the project so as to improve it efficiency.
  2. Draw a block diagram.
  • Design and calculation for automatic voltage regulator.
  1. Studying of various component of automatic voltages regulator circuit.
  2. Construct a automatic voltages regulator circuit.

1.11                                  PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION

The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:

Chapter one of this works is on the introduction to an automatic voltage regulator. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective, aim, scope, limitation and problem, definition of terms of an automatic voltage regulator were discussed.

Chapter two is on literature review of an automatic voltage regulator. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.

Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.

Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.

Chapter five is on conclusion, discussion, recommendation and references.

 

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