Bacterial Contaminants Associated With Commercial Poultry Feeds

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The bacterial contaminants associated with commercial poultry feeds from three companies in Nigeria (vital, Guinea and Top) were studied using streak plate techniques.  The culture media used were Nutrient agar and Mac Cokey agar.  The aim/ objective of the study is: To ascertain the microbial safety of commercial poultry feeds produced by companies.  To isolate microorgaisms that are contaminants of poultry feeds, to identify the bacterial types and to determine the microbial load of poultry feed.  The microbial mean count was highest in vital feed as 166 per ml with pH 7.80, followed by Guinea feed having mean count of 153 per ml with pH 6-46 and the least microbial mean count was got in Top feed, having 105 per ml withpH 6.00. The study revealed Staphylococcus aureus as the msot predominant bacterial organism with 52cfn (33%) followed by salmonella typhin with 48cfu (30%), The next bacterial organism isolated was Bacillus cereus with 40cfn (25%) and the least was Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 18cfu (12%).  Also vital feed had the highest isolation of stapohylococcus aureus, as 60cfu per ml followed by Guinea feed having 57 cfu per ml and least isolation was obtained from top feed as 40cfu per ml. While the highest isolation of salmonella tipphi was obtained also from vital feed as 57cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed with 50cfu per ml.  The highest6 isolation of Bacillus cereus was still from vital feed as 50 cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed as 43cfu per ml and least in Top feed with 28cfu per ml.  The highest isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was from vital feed with 25cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed with 19cfu per ml while least isolation was from top feed as 10 cfu per ml.  The results showed that the poultry feeds in general had bacterial contaminants.  But the microbial load was minimal increasing with decrease in acidity (i.e. high pH).


1.1                                           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Feeds for poultry production are composed largely of grains such as corn, wheat or barley, oil seeds, cake meal (originating mainly from oil producing seeds such as soybeans), sunflower seeds, peanuts, cotton seed and protein products of animal origin such as fish meal, meat and bone meal, slaughter house offal’s and feather meals (Bale et al., 2002). Since these feeds are expected to be the sole sources of nutrition of the birds, they usually contain essential mineral and vitamin additives (Dhand et al., 1998). However, there are variations in nutrient requirements for different farm animals, but the level of dietary energy and associated nutrient should be high enough to allow expression of animal potentials under certain environmental circumstances within the economic limitations (Wilson, 1990). According to Cevger and Yalcin (2003), poultry feeds are essential source of energy needed to generate heat and to support the chemical reactions in which all physiological processes depended. Many of these reactions are catalysed by vitamins or some inorganic elements, hence must be provided in the diet (Uwaezuoke et al., 2000). In addition, is water, since virtually all cell mediated reactions take place in an aqueous medium. In most cases, poultry feed ingredients are delivered in bulk and usually in very large quantities conveyed from one storehouse to another.

The poultry industries rely on the supply of ready-to-use feed firm from feed mills for handling, unloading, grinding of grains, mixing and usually pelleting of the mixed ration (Aganaga et al., 2000). These packaged feeds from feed mills constitute the main source of feeds for poultry farmers.

Poultry feed component of plants and animal origin are commonly contaminated with microorganisms, mostly bacteria and fungi and/or insects. However, the number and types of microorganisms and insects vary depending on the function of materials, location of its origin, climatic conditions encountered, harvesting, processing, storage transport technologies employed and packaging materials (D’Mello, 2006). He further reported the impart of the general environmental and handing circumstances including the nature and extent of quality control measures on the level of microbial contamination. Some beneficial poultry feed contaminants such as lactic acid bacteria have been reported (Dhand et al., 1998; D’Mello, 2006). The importance of LAB in poultry feeds and growth performance in farm animals have equally been documented (D’Mello, 2000). Other microorganisms that have been implicated as contaminants of poultry feeds include Escherichia coli, Erwinia herbicola, Salmonella spp. Listeria sp., Enterococcus faecalis, Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus. Penicillium spp. and Fusarium spp. (WHO, 1992; Klinger and Lapidot, 1993; Dhand et al., 1998; Hancock et al., 1998; Jeffrey et al., 1998; D’Mello, 2006).

The microbiology of animal feeds became imperative in view of the recent birds infections and diseases outbreak in Nigeria. The out break resulted in massive destruction of birds championed by the Federal Government of Nigeria. In addition, many poultry farmers have not recovered from the shock and huge financial losses created by the scenario. Therefore, this study focus on the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of selected commercial poultry feeds sold in Ilaro, Nigeria, with the aim of ascertaining the safe quality of the feeds.

1.2                                             OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The objective of this work is to ascertain the microbial safety Five different commercial poultry feeds namely, broiler finisher, broiler starter, broiler super starter, grower mash and layer top mash obtained from their trade outlets in Ilaro, Nigeria.

1.3                                                   AIM OF THE PROJECT

  1. To isolate micro-organism that are contaminant to poultry feed.
  2. To identified the bacterial types
  3. To determine the microbial load of poultry feed

1.4                                         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

This study revealed high microbial counts and the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the different poultry feeds investigated. This tends to reflect the level of bio security and hygienic practices in the production, handling and storing of the feeds. Incorporation of feed additives into poultry feeds that would prevent microbial contamination should be encouraged. These findings emphasize the need for constant quality assessment of these commercial feeds on sale in order to maintain the production of microbiologically stable poultry feeds and poultry products for human consumption.

1.5                                           LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

This work is limited to bacterial contaminants associated with commercial poultry feeds from ilaro Nigeria.

1.6                                                            HYPOTHESIS

H0: poultry feed are associated with bacterial contaminant

H1: poultry feed are not associated with bacterial contaminant.

H11: poultry feed do not have enough bacterial contaminant to cause infection in poultry.

1.7                                              STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Poultry feed is known to contain salmonella, and other organism are also implicated in poultry feed. It Is therefore pertinent to carry out microbiological examination of commercial prepared poultry feed to ascertain their safety to livestock.

1.8                                                  DEFINITION OF TERMS

Poultry: The term poultry used in agriculture generally refers to all domesticated birds kepts for egg or meat production.  These includes chickens (domestic fowls),  Grallus domestics, turkeys, ducks and geese.

Salmonella: is the infection that affects the livestock (poultry) feeds.

Bacteria: are microorganisms with a size of up to 5 μm and re- present the most important group of pathogens when discussing microbiological contamination.

Bacterial contamination: is a situation which occurs when bacteria end up in a location where they are not supposed to be. It is often used to refer to contamination of food by bacteria which can cause disease, but can also occur in other settings.


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