Sale!

design and fabrication of a pyrolysis reactor

The scope of this work covers building a pyrolysis reactor which is the part where plastics are heated, vaporized and the vapor thus produced ispassed to shell and tube condenser for condensation. The liquid thus obtained is called pyrolysis oil and charremains in pyrolysis reactor as residue. The yields depend on various factors like plastic type used, crackingtemperature of plastic, rate of heating, operation pressure of reactor, type of reactor, residence time, use ofcatalyst, etc.

 2,999.00

Description

ABSTRACT

Demand for plastic is increasing day by day which pose a tremendous threat to the environment.Pyrolysis process becomes an option to waste –to- energy technology deliver fuel to replace the fossil fuel. Afew options have been considered for plastic waste management for recycling and energy cycling technique.As a result plastic waste conversion into energy causes energy developed through innovation advancementand extensive research.Designandfabricationof a pyrolysis reactor which can be usedto convert the plastic into oilas aneffort infinding environment friendly means of waste recycling by means of plastic pyrolysis. In this effort we designanddevelop a minireactor setup forplasticpyrolysis to conversion plasticwaste into fuel.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE

TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF STUDY

  • PROBLEM STATEMENT
  • AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
  • SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • REVIEW OF BIOMASS PYROLYSIS
  • MECHANISM OF PYROLYSIS PROCESS
  • SOURCES OF BIOMASS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
  • REVIEW OF PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY
  • THE PRODUCTS OF PYROLYSIS PROCESS
  • REACTORS EMPLOYED IN THE PYROLYSIS PROCESS
  • REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES
  • BIOFUELS
  • PYROLYSISOILS

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     METHODOLOGY

3.1      SYSTEM OPERATING PRINCIPLE

3.2  SELECTIONOFMATERIAL

3.3      DESIGN PROCEDURE

CHAPTER FOUR

  • FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY
  • BURNINGTESTOFPYROLYSISOIL

CHAPTER FIVE                

5.0      CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND REFERENCES

  • CONCLUSION
  • RECOMMENDATION

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1                                           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Everyyearnearly500milliontonnesofplasticsareusedbypeopleandmuchofthatplasticendsupinthe environment harming marine life and other ecosystems. Plastics are non-bio – degradable material innature.Due to the population increase the demandfor plastic products assteady increasedover last10years. There are several methods for disposal of municipal and industrial waste as landfill, incinerationmaterialrecyclingandchemicalrecovery.Thesuitabletreatmentofplasticwasteisoneofthemajorfactors of waste management. This paper deals with objective of develop a mini reactor to convert plasticwaste into liquid fuel.

The main components of the machine: frame,shredding knife, filter, upper casing and mover. The shredded plastics went out through the filter and thenoutlet. The entire researcher utilized big reactorand pyrolysisi setup forconverting plastic waste into fueloil.But no one design and fabricate a prototype pyrolysissetup for plastic pyrolysis process.

Low density polyethylene,HighDensity Polyethylene,Polypropylene,PolyvinylChloride,Polystyreneandpolypropylenearethemainlyusedplasticsintheworld.Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is used in the drinking waterpackaging. Plastics are derived from petroleum derivatives andit is considered to be difficult to decompose and so the plasticsareapollutant(air,landandwater).Theplasticsarethepotential problem in the future. Most of the places in the worldarefilledwithunmanageablesolidwaste. Low densitypolyethylene(LDPE)isusedasthecheapestmodeofpackagingthe materials.Immediately plasticsbecomemostpopularin almost all the communitiesbut unfortunately thishas led to new source of solid waste because of the LDPE hasextremely low rate of degradation. Similarly, amount of fueldecreasing day by day and a prevention method is needed toovercomethis fueldeficiency.Plastics are the widely usedingredienttoproducefuelbyapyrolysis process.

Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition process of theorganic substances by heating externally which involves thesimultaneouschangeofchemicalcompositionandphysicalphase, and is irreversible. Pyrolysis is used in the starting of19thcentury whichis mainly consistsofchemical reaction.Thatis,takeplacebytheburningofallsolidorganicwastes likewood,cloth,andpaper,andalsosomekindplastic.Anhydrouspyrolysisprocessisanotherpyrolysisprocesswhichcanbeusedto produceliquid fuelssimilarto dieselfrom plastic waste. The pyrolysis process is the breaking orcracking of long chain polymer molecule of the plastics intoshorterchains through heat and pressure. That is,pyrolysisprocessisalmostequaltothe naturalprocessbreakdowncarbon into oil in the earth which takes millions of years innature. The pyrolysis process does this with the help of intenseheatinaclosedsysteminashortamountoftime.

In this workwedesign and fabricate a pyrolysis reactorfor conversion ofplasticinto fuel andenergyrecoveryprocess.

1.2                                                  PROBLEM STATEMENT

The amount plasticwaste is increasing whichresults in a chronic problem to the environment. In recent decades, there has been a dramatic increment in plastic consumption. Used plastic is one of the majorwastes in many countries including Nigeria.A lot of money is spent in land filling to process plastic wastes whichcan pose a threat to environment in long run. The incineration of plastic wastes leads to severe air pollution.Plastic pyrolysis process is a widely used technique to handle plastic wastes in many foreign countries. It is a newtechnology in Nigeria context. It involves melting plastic wastes, vaporizing them, condensing the vapor anddistilling to obtain fuel.

1.3                                             AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main aim of this study is to build a pyrolysis reactor which is on of the major components of the pyrolysermachine. The objectives of the study are:

  1. To develop a pyrolysisreactor prototype
  2. To evaluate the performance of a pyrolysis reactor
  • To investigate the use of pyrolysis ofplasticwastetoproducefueloil.
  1. To produce liquid from biomass solidwaste bypyrolysisprocess,

1.4                                                   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this work covers building a pyrolysis reactor which is the part where plastics are heated, vaporized and the vapor thus produced ispassed to shell and tube condenser for condensation. The liquid thus obtained is called pyrolysis oil and charremains in pyrolysis reactor as residue. The yields depend on various factors like plastic type used, crackingtemperature of plastic, rate of heating, operation pressure of reactor, type of reactor, residence time, use ofcatalyst, etc.

1.5                                                   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will serve as a means of reducing as well as reuse the plastic waste.  This study will serve as a means of reducing air pollution cause by used plastics.

CHAPTER FIVE

    5.1                                                       CONCLUSION

In this paper plastic waste conversion into energy through innovation advancement and extensive research forrecycling and energy cyclic techniques were discussed. In this effort we design and fabricate prototype minireactor for conversion of plastic waste into fuel work. It is an environment friendly waste recycling by meansof plastic pyrolysis process. Portable, economic and easy to operation are the special features of this plasticpyrolysissetup.It can beimplementingin medium scaleindustryforplasticoilproduction.

5.2      Recommendation

However,the performance of the system could be improved further, to produce more reliable and better results. The following recommendations are suggested for such improvement.

  1. The process bed temperature would be easier to control at uniform value if the system could be well insulated and supplied uniform rate of air by the blower.
  2. If only copper pipe is used for condenser, more liquid yield will be condensed.
  3. The consumption of expensive inert gas (nitrogen)was high. The gas product could be recycled as fluidizing gas. However, the effect of the use of recycling gas on the pyrolysis product yield and
  4. The external heating system (heater) should be insulated to reduce heat loss.
  5. Finally after implementing product-upgrading process, the fuel may be tested in an internal combustion engine.